Eesti turul olevate ehitusmaterjalide kiirgusohutuse hinnang

Rikka Cruz, Angelina (2020) Eesti turul olevate ehitusmaterjalide kiirgusohutuse hinnang. [thesis] [en] Radiation Safety Assessment of Building Materials on Estonian Market.

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Abstract

Antud ehitusmaterjalide uurimise plaanitud metoodid olid pindekshalatsioon, jahvatatud puru massiekshalatsioon ja gammaspektromeetria. Gammaspektromeetria ja massiekshalatsiooni uuringud teostati märtsist kuni augustini aastal 2020. Pindekshalatsiooni uuringud plaanitakse alustada alles septembris ja sellepärast neid antud töös ei kajastatu. Gammaspektromeetria abil on määratud ehitusmaterjalides sisalduvad radionukliidid, mille lagunemisel tekib gammakiirgus. Uuringu jooksul oli leitud, et uuritud nimekirjast kuue ehitusmaterjali I indeks ületab Keskkonnaameti poolt lubatud väärtust I=1, mis tähendab, et nende materjalide kasutamise tuleb piiretleda. Massiekshalatsiooni analüüsi jooksul seadmega AlphaGuard DF2000 mõõdeti radooni eraldumist ehitusmaterjalidest. Uuringud näitasid, et mõnedel ehitusmaterjalidel esineb kõrge Rn-220 ehk torooni ekshalatsioon. Kuid nii radooni kui ka torooni ekshalatsiooni viitetase ei ole Eestis veel paika pandud ja uurimistöös saadud tulemus ei saa nende ehitusmaterjalide kasutamist piiriata. Massiekshalatsiooni uuringud näitasid, et uuritavates ehitusmaterjalides radooni massiekshalatsiooni kiirused jäävad vahemikkus üks kuni 128,6 mBq/kg*h ja torooni eraldamise kiirused kuni 6070,37mBq/kg*h. Antud uuring tuvastas, et Euroliidust väljastpool riikides toodetud materjalides esinevad probleemid ning tehtud järeldus on, et neid peab rangemalt kontrollima. Samal ajal on vaja jätkata ehitusmaterjalidest radooni ja torooni ekshalatsiooni uuringuid, et leida kuidas selle radioaktiivse gaasi kõrge eraldumise kiirus mõjutab radooni sisaldust siseruumide õhus.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this dissertation was to describe a study commissioned by the Environmental Inspektion. The task of the study was to check and analyze the radiation level of building materials from the advanced list. The investigated building materials were produced outside the European Union in countries such as Russia, China, Brazil, Thailand and are already available on the Estonian market. During the study, radiological samples (I-Index calculated from three radionuclides) and radon exhalation had to be checked. The study was to identify whether there were any problems in this area and whether more frequent checks were needed. The planned methodologies for the study were surface index exhalation, ground crumb mass exhalation and gamma spectroscopy. Gamma spectrometry and mass exhalation studies were performed from March to August 2020. Surface exhalation studies are not scheduled to start until September and are therefore not reported in this paper. Gamma spectrometry was used to determine the main natural radionuclides contained in building materials, the decay of which produces gamma radiation. During the study, it was found that the index I of seven building materials from the advanced list exceeds the value allowed by the Environmental Board, which means that these materials are not recommended for use. During the mass exhalation analysis, the release of radon from the building materials was measured with an AlphaGuard DF2000 device. Studies have shown that some building materials have a high Rn-220, or thoron exhalation rate. However, the reference levels of both radon and thoron exhalation rate have not yet been established in Estonia, and the results of the research cannot limit the use of these building materials. This study found that in the field of construction materials in Estonia, there are some problems with materials produced in countries outside the European Union and it is worth checking them more often. At the same time, it is necessary to continue the exhalation studies of radon and thorom in building materials in order to find out how the high release rate of this radioactive gas affects the radon content in the indoor air.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Rein Koch
Co-advisor: Julija Šommet
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Building Construction and Design > Building Materials
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Angelina Kljuiko
Date Deposited: 16 Sep 2020 10:37
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2020 10:37
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5644

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