Elektrolüütiliste ja autokatalüütiliste pinnete uuringud ja rakendused

Firstova, Anna; Tarmo, Artur (2020) Elektrolüütiliste ja autokatalüütiliste pinnete uuringud ja rakendused. [thesis] [en] Research and Practical Pork of Electrolytic and Autocatalytic Plating.

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Abstract

Antud lõputöö andis detailse ülevaate kolmest põhilisest galvaniseerimise tehnoloogiast, nende omadustest ning kasutusaladest. Lõputöö käigus uuriti kolme põhilist galvaniseerimise tehnoloogiat, milleks on  lokaalgalvaanika, vannigalvaanika ning elektrivaba galvaanika. Esimese katse käigus galvaniseeriti neli põhilist metalset materjali, kasutades elektrivaba galvaniseerimise metoodikat. Materjalideks olid: malm, teras, vask ja messing. Katses kasutati Caswelli poolt pakutavat toodangut. Katsed, mis olid läbiviidud Caswell toodetega õnnestusid, kuna kõikidel materjalidel tekkis niklikiht, isegi mootorrata silindri peal oli tekinud ilus kiht. Teise katse eesmärgiks, kus kasutusel oli isetehtud elektrolüüdi lahus, oli nikeldada 20.sajandi alguses toodetud mootorratta silindrit, kasutades elektivaba nikeldamise tehnoloogiat. Proovikatse teostati seepärast, et Caswelli toodangust koostatud lahusest ei piisanud. Uue elektrolüüdi valmistamiseks osteti vajalikud kemikaalid ning nendest koostati lahus. Enne silindri asetamist elektrolüüdi vanni, oli silinder puhastatud liivapritsiga ning eemaldatud rasvast, kasutades puhastus aktivaatorid. Katse tulemus osutus negatiivseks, sest niklikiht ei jäänud ühtlaselt silindri pinnale. Üheks põhjuseks on eeldatavalt valed kemikaalide proportsioonid. Teiseks põhjuseks võib olla vale kemikaali kasutus lahuses, kuna hüpofosfaadi asemel kasutati hüdrofosfaati. Samuti sai vähendatud lahuse pH taset, kasutades selleks väävelhapet. Enne vähendamist oli lahuse pH 4,6. Pärast vähendamist oli lahuse pH 3,1. Kuid isegi pärast pH vähendamist katse ei saavutanud tulemust, mida oodati. Lõputöö katsete käigus, tekkis idee tegeleda galvaniseerimisega ka tulevikus, kuna see on väga nõutud ning ka tulus äritegevus. Uurides Eesti siseturgu, siis võib märkida, et puuduvad ettevõtted, kes pakuksid elektrivaba galvaniseerimise lahendust. Lähtuvalt sellest oleks ka klientuuri, sest vanade auto- või mootorratta detailide restaureerimine on viimase viie aastaga läinud aina populaarsemaks.

Abstract [en]

Thesis provided a detailed overview of three main electroplating technologies, their properties and applications. The thesis investigates three main galvanizing technologies, which are local galvanic, bath galvanic and electroless galvanic. In the first experiment, four main metallic materials were galvanized using an electroless electroplating technique. Used materials for the experiment were: cast iron, steel, copper and brass. The product developed by Caswell was used in the experiment. Experiments with Caswell products were successful because all materials formed a nickel layer, even motorcycle cylinder got beautiful layer. The aim of the second experiment, using a homemade electrolyte solution, was to nickel a motorcycle cylinder produced in the early 20th century, using electroless nickel plating technology. The pilot test was performed because the solution prepared from Caswell’s production was not sufficient. The necessary chemicals were purchased to make a new electrolyte and to prepare a solution. Before placing the cylinder in the electrolyte bath, the cylinder was sandblasted and degreased using cleaning activators. The test result was negative because the nickel layer did not remain evenly on the cylinder surface. One reason is presumably the wrong proportions of chemicals. Another reason could be the wrong use of chemical in the solution, as hydrophosphate was used instead of hypophosphate. The pH was also reduced using sulphuric acid. The Ph of the solution was 4.6 before reduction. After reduction, the pH of the solution was 3.1. However, even after lowering the pH, the experiment did not achieve the expexted result. During the final thesis experiments, the idea arose to engage in galvanizing also in the future, as it is a highly demanded and also profitable business. Examining the Estonian domestic market, it can be noted that there are no companies that would offer an electroless galvanizing solution. Based on this, there would also be a clientele, because the restoration of old car or motorcycle parts has become more and more popular in the last five years.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Toomas Pihl
Subjects: Mechanical Engineering > Production Engineering and Technology > Heat Treatment Technology and Equipment
Mechanical Engineering > Production Engineering and Technology
Divisions: Institute of Technology and Circular Economy > Industrial Technology and Marketing
Depositing User: Anna Firstova
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2020 12:19
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2020 12:19
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5572

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