Jätkusuutlikkus kui trend rõivatööstuses

Laos, Diana (2020) Jätkusuutlikkus kui trend rõivatööstuses. [thesis] [en] Sustainability as a trend in the clothing industry.

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Abstract

Käesoleva lõputöö teemaks on jätkusuutlikkus kui trend rõivatööstuses. Töö autor väitis hüpoteesis, et tarbijad ei ole teadlikud jätkusuutlikkuse printsiibist ja lasevad enda ostuotsuseid mõjutada teadmatusest või rõivatootjate osavast turundustööst. Hüpoteesi esimene pool sai tõendatud – tarbija ei ole teadlik jätkusuutlikkuse printsiibist. Teine hüpoteesi pool ei saanud tõendatud – tarbija ei lase teadmatusel või osaval turundustööl oma ostuotsuseid mõjutada. Jätkusuutlikkus on väga päevakohane ning oluline teema. Sellest räägitakse aina enam ja seda põhjusel, et me ei suuda enam kõigile inimestele pakkuda ja tagada eluks vajaminevaid ressursse – puhast vett, õhku, normaalseid töötingimusi jne. Seega on oluline muutuda ning muuta oma tegevus jätkusuutlikkumaks. Jätkusuutlikkus on aga termin, mida defineeritakse väga erinevalt, sellel puudub selge ja ühtselt arusaadav sisu. Lisaks on hindamiskriteeriumid väga keerulised ja väljastpoolt ettevõtet on siseprotsesse raske hinnata, seetõttu võidakse ettevõtte tegevust esitada keskkonnasõbralikumalt kui see tegelikult on. Tegevuse jätkusuutlikkumaks muutmiseks on erinevaid võimalusi, alates disainist kuni ostujärgsele käsitluseni välja. Seega saavad jätkusuutlikkuse tarbimisse panustada nii ettevõtted, kui tarbijad. Jätkusuutlikkuse üheks eesmärgiks rõivatööstuses on toota rõivad ümbertöödeldud materjalidest. See on ilmselt ka kõige enam tarbijateni jõudev kommunikatsioon, seoses keskkonnasõbraliku tegevuse ja tootmisega rõivatööstuses. Uurimustöös uuriti põhjalikult nende materjalide kasvatamise ja tootmisega seonduvat ning saab järeldada, et nende materjalide kasutus ei ole jätkusuutlik tegevus. Ka tarbija tundub olevat jätkusuutlikkusest majanduses teadlikum kui ei kunagi varem ning soovib teha muutuseid enda tarbimises. Eelnevalt läbiviidud uuringud on näidanud, et „jätkusuutlik mood“ kui uuringuartikkel on kasvanud viimaste aastatega kahekordselt ning ligi kolmandik tarbijatest ei soovi enam oma lemmikbrändi toodet tarbida, kui see ei muuda oma tegevust jätkusuutlikkumaks. See on pannud ka ettevõtted olukorda, kus nad peavad antud trendiga kaasa minema ja oma tegevust muutma. Lõputöö empiirilise osa esimeses etapis uuriti kuidas suurimad rõivakaubanduse ettevõtted kommunikeerivad infot, seoses jätkusuutlike materjalidega. Kokkuvõtvalt võib järeldada, et ettevõtted informeerivad tarbijat vaid osaliselt ja info on mõnevõrra eksitav. Suurusnumbrid väidetavate kokkuhoidude kohta samuti erinevad. Kasutades ära tarbija teadmatust, esitlevad tootjad tarbijale jätkusuutlikust vaid positiivses võtmes, jätmaks rääkimata negatiivsetest külgedest, mis paneb aga tarbijad uskuma, et moe tarbimine saab jätkuda samal määral. Tarbija ei tohiks aga lasta end petta ja peaks esmalt aru saama, mis on pakutava jätkusuutliku toote sisu taga. Teises etapis viidi läbi „Tarbija teadlikkuse ja ostuharjumuste uuring“. Küsitlusega soovis autor teada saada tarbija seisukohtadest, harjumustest ning teadlikkusest, seoses jätkusuutliku moe ja selle tarbimisega. Vastajaid oli tarbijauuringus 590 ja autor leiab, et selle põhjal saab teha mõningad järeldused. On märgata, et ostusagedus viitab tugevale ületarbimisele, osteldakse pigem uudsust otsides. Kui maailmatrendid ja statistika näitavad, et just noorem generatsioon on huvitatud tegema keskkonnasäästlikumaid valikuid siis läbiviidud tarbijauuring seda ei toeta. Pigem saab välja tuua, et noortele meeldib tihti ostelda, seda ei tehta vajaduspõhiselt ja oluline on hind. Kui tarbijatelt küsida, mida tähendab nende jaoks keskkonnasäästlik/jätkusuutlik rõivaese siis enim vastanutest pidas selleks asjaolu, et toode on loodud kasutades ümbertöödeldud materjale. See kinnitab lõputöös esitatud hüpoteesi ja näitab, et tootjate poolt esitatud turunduskommunikatsioon on selle teadmise tarbijale kujundanud ja kasvav tarbimine võib justkui jätkuda. Vastanutest pooled siiski ei kavatse jätta ka brändi rõivaste tarbimist, kui see oma kollektsioonides ei hakka kasutama keskkonnasäästlikumaid materjale. Lõputöö raames loodud tarbijauuringu tulemused ei näita, et see oleks klienti suunanud antud tooteid rohkem tarbima. Kolmandas etapis analüüsis töö autor AS Baltika brändiportfelli kuuluva brändi Mosaic 2019 sügistalve kollektsiooni, moodustades selle hulgas valimi. Uuring viidi läbi, et müüginumbrite põhjal analüüsida, kas tarbija on eelistanud keskkonnasõbralikku toodet tavapärasele tootele. Analüüsiti kõiki antud hooajal müügil olnud tooteid, mille koostises oli kasutatud ümbertöödeldud polüestrit ning võrreldi neid samas tootegrupis kahe kuni kolme sarnaste omadustega toodetega, mille koostises ei olnud esindatud ümbertöödeldud polüester. Analüüsiti viite erinevat tootegruppi ja kokku 23 erinevat toodet. Antud uuringu tulemused näitasid, et kui toode on kallim, mis materjalide kalliduse tõttu alatihti nii on, siis ei ole see kliendile nii vastuvõtlik. Isegi olenemata selle väärtusest teha parem valik. Seda toetas ka kliendiuuringu tulemus, mis rõhutas kui oluline on hind. Samas oli ka müügitulemustest märgata, et ümbertöödeldud polüestrist toodetud rõiva läbimüük ei olnud ka siis parem kui see oli samas hinnas teiste toodetega. Seega klient teeb ostuotsuse teiste faktorite põhjal. Kui toode meeldib, siis ta ostetakse. Antud toodete müügitulemuste analüüsis ei näidanud, et klient oleks eelistanud jätkusuutlikku toodet tavamaterjalidest toodetele. Rõivatööstuse olemus ja jätkusuutlikkuse vahel esineb mitmeid vastuolusid. Tööstus suunab tarbijat aina enam tarbima. Alati peaks meeles pidama et rohkemate asjade ostlemine ei vähenda kunagi keskkonnas esinevaid probleeme, olenemata kui ökoloogiline toode ka poleks. Jätkusuutlikkus on lai mõiste ja erinevad ühendused, tarbijad ja tootjad defineerivad seda erinevalt ja enda jaoks mugavalt. Oleks oluline ja jätkusuutlikule arengule kaasaaitav, kui riigiorganid ja seadusandjad kehtestaksid nõudmised, kohustused või hoopis toetused jätkusuutlikkuse edendamise tarbeks, et ettevõtetel oleks ka endil motivatsiooni selleks. Ümbertöödeldud polüester ja orgaaniline puuvill ei ole jätkusuutlikud materjalid. Uurides nende materjalide kasvatamise/tootmisega seonduvat, võib märgata, et ressursse kasutatakse isegi ehk enam kui tavamaterjalide puhul. Kahjuks on „ümbertöödeldud“ ja „orgaaniline“ võimsad turundussõnad ja nende esitamine loob mulje, et tegemist on keskkonnasõbralikema materjalidega. Sellest tulenevalt oleks oluline ka ettevõtetel mitte jätkata nende materjalide jätkusuutlikkuse esitlemisega ning harida ka tarbijat. Kõige olulisem oleks tarbijat harida – oskamaks teha keskkonnasõbralikemaid valikuid, ostma parema kvaliteediga rõivaesemeid, kandma neid kauem ja eelkõige tarbima vähem. Kui rääkida jätkusuutlikkuse mõistmisest siis võime tarbija käitumisest märgata, et seisneb vastuolu mõistmise ja käitumise vahel. Tarbija peab ennast keskkonnast hoolivaks kuid ostuotsustes see ei kajastu. Seega on riigiorganitel ja seadusandjatel oluline tõsta tarbijateadlikkust ja suunata jätkusuutlikumalt tarbima. Harjumused on vaja muuta säästlikumaks ja tarbija on eelkõige turuolukorra määraja. Jätkusuutliku tarbimise ja tootmise arendamine ja parendamine on tarbija ja tootja vaheline suhe, millesse mõlemad peavad panustama. Tootja poole pealt on oluline võtma kasutusele nii palju meetmeid kui võimalik, muutes oma tegevust jätksuutlikkumaks ning tarbija poolt on oluline samuti teha keskkonnasõbralikumad otsused. Olgu see siis vähesem tarbimine, targemad ostuotsused või teadlikum ostujärgne kasutus. Tarbija saab oma käitumisega kaasa aidata tarbimismustrite parendamisele, tehes paremaid valikuid, vähendades sellega negatiivset keskkonnamõju ja toetada positiivseid arenguid.

Abstract [en]

The topic of this thesis is Sustainability as a trend in the clothing industry. The clothing industry is one of the most polluting industries in the world, which has created a need for change, so that future generations can live well and with dignity. This has prompted companies to look for different solutions and ways to reduce their global footprint. Consumers, especially the younger generation, are interested in changing their habits, to support sustainability and leave a smaller ecological footprint. However, the customer is still encouraged to consume more and more, for example by emphasizing recycled and organic materials, presenting it as a sustainable way of consuming. The term "sustainability" in the clothing industry is like a trend and a sales tip in recent years. By integrating the philosophy of "doing business sustainably and while protecting the environment" into the image of your brand, the consumer is guided to consume the product of their own brand. The goal of each company is to grow the customer base, turnover and profit. They do not have any choice - you need to follow the trend and present yourself, as a sustainable brand or the customer no longer wants to buy your product and goes to look for it from a competitor range. Polyester and cotton are the two most widely used fibers in the garment industry, so the first focus of this thesis is on garments made from these two fibers and related marketing information. The author of the present work hypothesizes that consumers are not aware of the principle of sustainability and allow their purchasing decisions to be influenced by ignorance or skillful marketing work of clothing manufacturers. The aim of the thesis is to provide an overview of the contradictions between the clothing industry and sustainable development. In order to achieve this goal, the following research tasks have been set: * study the literature on sustainability and sustainable development, to understand its importance and need; * clarify the need for sustainability in the clothing industry; * get acquainted with the nature of the production of recycled polyester and organic cotton; * to study how the largest clothing companies communicate information about sustainable materials; * conduct a consumer survey to understand consumer purchasing behavior and awareness of sustainability in the clothing industry; * carry through a partial sales analysis of the Mosaic brand's autumn-winter 2019 collection to understand if the customer has preferred a product made from recycled materials. In the first stage of the empirical part of the thesis, it was studied how the largest clothing trade companies communicate information regarding sustainable materials. In conclusion - companies inform consumer partially and the information is misleading. The size figures for the resource savings also vary. Taking advantage of consumer ignorance, manufacturers present sustainability to the consumer only in a positive way, not to mention the negative aspects, which, however, leads consumers to believe that fashion consumption can continue to the same level. However, the consumer should not be deceived and should first understand what is behind the content of the sustainable product on offer. The second phase reflected "Consumer Awareness and Shopping Habits Survey". With the survey, the author wanted to find out the consumer's views, habits and awareness regarding sustainable fashion and its consumption. There were 590 respondents. It is noticeable that the frequency of purchases indicates a strong over-consumption. If global trends and statistics show that the younger generation is interested in making more environmentally friendly choices, then the conducted consumer survey does not support it. Rather, it can be pointed out that young people often like to shop, it is not done on a need basis and price is important. When consumers are asked what an ecofriendly/sustainable garment means to them, most respondents considered it a fact that the product was created using recycled materials. This confirms the hypothesis presented in the thesis and shows that the marketing communication provided by the producers has shaped this knowledge for the consumer and the growing consumption can seem to continue. However, half of the respondents do not intend to stop consuming branded clothes unless it uses more environmentally friendly materials in their collections. The results of the consumer survey created within the framework of the dissertation do not show that it would have directed the customer to consume more of these products. In the third stage, the author of the work analyzed the autumn-winter collection of the Mosaic brand. The study was carried out to analyze, on the basis of sales figures, whether consumers have preferred an environmentally friendly product over a conventional product. Totally there were analyzed 23 different products. The results of this study showed that if a product is more expensive, then it is less receptive to the customer. Even whatever its value, make a better choice. The sales results also showed that sales of recycled polyester garments were not better than at the same price as other products. Thus, the customer makes a purchase decision based on other factors. If you like the product, it will be purchased. The analysis of the sales results of these products does not show that the customer would have preferred a sustainable product over conventional materials. The hypothesis placed by the author of the dissertation was partially proved. The first half of the hypothesis stated that consumers are not aware of the principle of sustainability. The results of the survey show that consumers consider themselves to be quite environmentally conscious, but they like to shop often, doing it because of looking freshness and variety. Frequent shopping and non-demand shopping can be considered as unsustainable activities. More than half of those surveyed considered their willingness to buy sustainable clothing to be neutral or not at all interested. In addition, almost half of consumers are unaware that they have purchased sustainable clothing in the last year, which shows that it is not important. It can therefore be concluded that a large proportion of consumers do not understand the nature of sustainability in the clothing industry. The second part of the hypothesis could not be proved. It argued that consumers allow their purchasing decisions to be influenced by ignorance or skillful marketing by clothing manufacturers. The survey found that while consumers are interested in sustainability, they want to make more environmentally friendly choices, but this does not influence purchasing decisions. At the time of purchase, other factors are more important- such as style, fit and especially price. The consumer study also highlighted the gap between consumer awareness and behavior, which was thoroughly discussed on the theoretical side. This was shown in so many places by the so-called non-supportive answers. The consumer considers himself caring for the environment, but in a shopping situation he behaves differently. There are many conflicts between the clothing industry and sustainable development. Firstly, the fashion industry itself is structured in a way that leads consumers to consume more and changes consumer behavior. Thus, the nature of fashion is in itself at odds with sustainability. Clothing companies should change their marketing so that the focus is no longer on encouraging consumption in the form of big discounts, upcoming events and happenings that are creating new needs. This would also require a change in the business model towards lower clothing sales. Another challenge is to define sustainability - countries, political associations, consumers and manufacturers alike should have a common understanding of what sustainability is and how it is applied in the clothing industry. At the moment, it is a pervasive concept, and everyone formulates and comforts it differently and appropriately for themselves. It would also be important for public authorities to impose requirements, obligations or subsidies to promote sustainability, so that companies have the motivation to do so themselves. Thirdly, the use of recycled polyester and organic cotton will not save us. Fashion consumers who think that wearing plastic polyester and organic cotton products supports the sustainability of the clothing industry, should be aware of the growing/production of these materials. In that case, they would realize that these materials are not as environmentally friendly as they are presented. Consequently, it would also be important for companies not to continue to present the sustainability of these materials and to educate the consumer, explaining that their use is by no means a more sustainable activity. Another major problem is the lack of consumer awareness - the most important thing would be to educate the consumer so that they can make more environmentally friendly choices. Convince them to buy better quality clothes, wear them longer and, above all, consume less. However, the latter is difficult for companies, because the goal of any business is primarily to increase turnover and customer base. It is becoming increasingly clear that consumers are seemingly interested in making better or more environmentally friendly choices, but this is not reflected in purchasing decisions. However, if the importance of sustainability and the fact that other generations can no longer consume significant resources can be ingrained in the consumer's consciousness, then we could talk about the possibility of sustainability in the clothing industry. In conclusion, it can be concluded that consumers consumption habits need to be made more sustainable and, in particular, it is the consumer who determines the market situation.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Diana Tuulik
Subjects: Clothing and Textiles > Technology and Textile Science > Production of Textile Materials
Divisions: Institute of Clothing and Textiles > Resource Management in the Clothing and Textiles Industry
Depositing User: Diana Laos
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2020 12:02
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2020 10:33
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5379

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