Tallinna madal- ja keskpinge maakaablite rikete analüüs

Zupping, Jaagup (2020) Tallinna madal- ja keskpinge maakaablite rikete analüüs. [thesis] [en] Analysis of Faults in Tallinn Low- and Medium Voltage Underground Cables.

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Abstract

Töös uuriti Tallinna linna maakaablite seisukorda ja vahetamisvajadust. Tänu kogutud materjalidele selgub töös kaablite tegelik hetkeolukord. Analüüsiks koguti andmeid läbi intervjuu ja esitatud päringu. Tallinna piirkonna uute plastikkaablite seisukord on hea, kuid kuna õlikaablite osakaal on endiselt suur, toimub rikkeid suhteliselt palju. Õlikaablites toimub rikkeid just seetõttu, et need on vanad ja amortiseerunud. Rikete vähenemise eelduseks oleks see, et vanad õlikaablid vahetatakse uute plastikkaablite vastu välja. Kuid nii lihtne see ei ole, sest kaablite vahetamine on väga kulukas ning aeganõudev töö, mistõttu ei ole seda võimalik väga suures mahus korraga teostada. Võimaluse korral rikki läinud kaableid remonditakse. Tihti juhtuvad rikked olema samades kaablites, mis lõpptulemusena võib minna maksma rohkem, kui uue kaabli paigaldamine. Uued plastkaablid on aga loomult vastupidavamad, ning tänapäeval paigaldatavad kaablid kaitstakse enamasti toruga ning kaablikraav täidetakse liivaga. Tänu sellisele tegutsemisele on kaablite eluiga pikem, sest pinnasest tulenev kulumine on vähenenud. Vanasti seda aga ei tehtud, mistõttu on vanad kaablid väliste tegurite poolt vähem kaitstud. Tehtud lõputöö põhjal võib aga järeldada, et kuigi vahetamisvajadusega kaableid on meie maapinnas palju, siis niipea nende vahetamine toimuma ei hakka. Suurte kulude tõttu on kaablite vahetust võimalik teostada aegamööda, kuid see tähendab seda, et samal ajal toimub jätkuvalt rikkeid, mida tuleb remontida. Sellest tulenevalt ei ole viimase kolmel aastal kaablirikete arv vähenenud ning ilmselt ei vähene ka lähitulevikus. Mida enam saadakse vanu õlikaableid vahetatud, seda enam on ka lootust, et rikete arv väheneb. Kui aga saada rikete arv vähenema, väheneks ka tarbija elektrikatkestuse aeg, mille tulemusena oleksid kliendid rahulolevamad. Püstitatud kolm ülesannet said ilma probleemideta täidetud. Töös on antud ülevaade Tallinna maakaablitest ning nende peamistest aspektidest. Analüüsitud on maakaablirikkeid Tallinna piirkonnas ning vastavalt analüüsile on koostatud vastavad järeldused ja kokkuvõte.

Abstract [en]

The condition of the Tallinn underground cables and the need for replacement were studied. Thanks to the collected materials, the actual current situation of the cables becomes clear in the thesis. For analysis, data was collected through an interview and an inquiry. The condition of Tallinn's underground cables is good, but as the amount of oil cables is still large, there are relatively many failures. Oil cables malfunction because they are old and depreciated. The presumption would be that old oil cables are simply replaced with new plastic cables, but this is not so easy. Replacing cables is a very expensive and time-consuming job, which is why it is not done much. If possible, the cable will be repaired. Failures often occur in the same cables, which can end up costing more than replacing the old cable with new cable. However, new plastic cables are inherently more durable, and cables installed today are usually protected by a pipe and filled with sand around the pipe. Due to this operation, the life of the cables is longer, because the wear caused by the ground is reduced. In the past, however, this was not done, which makes old cables less protected by external factors. However, based on the dissertation, it can be concluded that although there are many cables in ground that need to be replaced, they will not be replaced soon. Due to the high costs, it is possible to replace the cables gradually, but this means that at the same time there are still failures that need to be repaired. As a result, the number of cable failures has not decreased in the last three years and is unlikely to decrease in the near future. The more old oil cables are replaced, the more there is hope that the number of failures will decrease. However, if the number of failures is reduced, the consumer's power outage time would also be reduced, as a result of which customers would be more satisfied. The three set tasks were completed without any problems. The work provides an overview of Tallinn underground cables and their main aspects. Underground cable faults in the Tallinn area have been analyzed and the corresponding conclusions and summary have been prepared in accordance with the analysis.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Jaanus Ojangu
Co-advisor: Andres Mandre
Subjects: Mechanical Engineering > Electrical Engineering and Electrical Equipment
Divisions: Institute of Engineering > Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Jaagup Zupping
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2020 08:17
Last Modified: 05 Jun 2020 08:17
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5368

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