Plokiahela tehnoloogia rakendatavus tarneahelas

Kriiva, Kaur (2020) Plokiahela tehnoloogia rakendatavus tarneahelas. [thesis] [en] Blockchain technology Applicability in the supply chain.

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Abstract

Bakalaureuse töö eesmärgiks oli uurida plokiahela tehnoloogia rakendatavust tarneahelate tegevustes erinevate plokiahela võimaluste näol lähtudes ekspertide ja valdkonnas töötavate inimeste teadmistele. Tuvastada millised on arvamused ja hoiakud antud tehnoloogia suhtes ning analüüsida ja võrrelda vaateid ja hinnanguid plokiahela potentsiaalile ja selle seotusele tarneahelaga. Valimisse kuulus kaks eksperti, kes on plokiahela tehnoloogiaga seotud nagu Ivo Lõhmus (Guardtime OÜ) ja Heiti Mering. Täiendavalt viidi läbi küsitlus valdkonnas töötavate inimeste seas, et anda suurem varieeruvus vastuste seas. Informatsiooni koguti ekspertide puhul kvalitatiivsete intervjuude näol ning valdkonnas tegelevatele inimestele jagati Interneti teel küsimustik. Plokiahela spetsialistide intervjuude tulemustest selgus, et antud tehnoloogiat nähakse nende silmis erinevalt. Pidades seda ainult andmete jagamise kontekstis kõige mõistlikumaks või nimetades seda usaldusmasinaks. Plokiahela olulisus ettevõtetes kindlasti tõuseb. Tõenäoliselt ühel hetkel hakkab see hype langema. See sõltub sellest kui palju räägitakse sellest ja kui palju suuremad ettevõtted tegelevad plokiahela rakendatavuse uurimisega ja selle langust on täna on juba tunda, kuid üha enam on seda tehnoloogiat hakatud kasutama. Ettevõtted kes mingi projekti puhul on seda tehnoloogiat testinud, leidsid et tegu on huvitava innovatsiooniga, kuid ei leitud hetke piisavalt eelist selle rakendamiseks. Olulise punktina toodi intervjuu käigus välja see, et väga palju tahetakse teha plokiahelat plokiahela pärast, arvates et see lahendab kõik probleemid ära. Kõik ettevõtted, kes soovivad plokiahela tehnoloogiasse investeerida, peavad esmalt läbi viima strateegilise hindamise, et näha, kas see on nende ärimudeli jaoks tõesti teostatav. Paljud ettevõtted ei pruugi investeeringute tootlust esimestel aastatel näha. Plokiahelate tehnoloogia mis tahes struktureerimata rakendamine võib põhjustada strateegilisi tõrkeid. Seega on soovitatav, et ettevõtted viiksid läbi ulatuslikud hinnangud läbi juhtumite tasemel, et teha kindlaks, millist rakendust saab plokiahela tehnoloogia abil esile tõsta. Tuleb kindlaks teha kohad, kus seda saab kasutada, ja selle mõju tuleb hinnata konkreetsete kasutusjuhtude puhul. Plokiahela tehnoloogia maksimaalse eelise ärakasutamiseks on vaja õiget strateegilist lähenemist. Lisaks selle märgiti, et ei ole mõistlik enamus probleeme plokiahela abil lahendada. Valdkonnas töötavate inimesed leidsid, et plokiahel aitab meil edasi liikuda inimesevabade äriprotsesside poole. Küsitletavad pidasid tähtsamaks kolm plokiahela eelist, milleks oli suurem läbipaistvus, pettuse vähendamine ja suurem turvalisus või väiksem risk. Tarneahela kontekstis on väga oluline tagada läbipaistvus mis on olemasolevate süsteemide üks puudustest. On võimalik jälgida tooteid algusest peale ja on võimalik välja tuua ebaseaduslikud tegevused. Turvalisus tagab, et ilma kolmandata osapooleta saavad ettevõtted, kes ei usalda üksteis, omavahel väärtuslikke andmeid kindlalt ja muutumatult jagada. Pettuste vähendamise kohapealt saab kasutada tarkasi lepinguid, mille kaudu saavad ettevõtted säästa kaduma mindud tooteid ning muid kulusid. Võrreldes intervjueeritavatega pidasid küsimustiku vastajad plokiahelat turvalisemaks kui olemasolevad süsteemid. Plokiahela suurimaid takistusi on oskuste ja arusaamise puudumine antud tehnoloogia kohta, mis on sama spetsialistidega. Neile kes on huvitatud plokiahela töökohtades, siis on soovituseks välja uurida ise saadaolevad võimalused. Sellele probleemile aitaks kaasa kui koolitused kajastaksid plokiahela tehnoloogiat koos teiste enam nõutud tehnoloogiatega. Suur erinevus intervjueeritavate ja küsitluse vastajate seas oli regulatiivsed küsimused. Ühelt poolt ütlesid spetsialistid, et neid probleeme ei ole. Teiselt poolt on nii mõndagi arvestada. Kuna tegu on detsentraliseeritud pearaamatuga ja võrgus osalejad võivad asuda üle maailma, siis see muudab kohtualluvuse küsimuse keerukaks. Lisaks sellele on küsimus, et kes vastutab võrgusiseste toimingute eest. Peale selle on probleem Euroopa Liidu isikuandmete kaitse üldmääruse järgimisega, mille kohaselt on isikul õigus nõuda enda isikuandmete kustutamist. Plokiahelas ei ole võimalik neid muuta ega kustutada. Küsitluse vastuseid võrreldes Deloitte 2019 aasta globaalse plokiahela uuringuga, siis sarnasust on näha paaris kohas. Plokiahelat peetakse turvalisemaks kui olemasolevad süsteemid ja suur huvi on regulatiivsed probleemid kohta, eriti privaatsus. Uuringus osalejad pidasid suuremat rõhku ärieelistele, mida on võimalik antud tehnoloogiaga saavutada. Antud töö limitatsioonideks on valimi suurus ja intervjueeritavateks valitud eksperdid. Muud andmekogumismeetodid, näiteks grupi intervjuud, oleksid võinud avaldada lisateavet, võimaldades osalejatel ennast väljendada teistsuguses keskkonnas. Edaspidise uurimise üheks võimaluseks on kaasata ka väikesed kuni keskmised tarneahelas ja logistika valdkonnas tegutsevaid ettevõtted. Lisaks saaks keskenduda plokiahela potentsiaalile erinevate ekspedeerimis ja kullerettevõtete tegevustes või ka uurida konkreetsete plokiahelale loodud laheduste võimalusi ja potentsiaali vastavates ettevõtetes.

Abstract [en]

The topic was selected because there is a deficiency of information on blockchain technology and its applicability. The aim is to identify the applicability of blockchain technology in supply chain activities in the form of different blockchain opportunities, based on the knowledge of experts and people working in the field. The main research objectives are as follows: • identify the opinions and attitudes of experts on the applicability of blockchain technology for the industry; • identify knowledge of blockchain technology for people working in the field; • analyse and compare the views and assessments of experts in blockchain technology on the potential of a given technology and its association with supply chain. Bachelor's thesis was aimed at exploring the applicability of blockchain technology in supply chain activities in the form of different blockchain opportunities, based on the knowledge of experts and people working in the field. Identifing opinions and attitudes towards this technology and analysing and comparing views and assessments of the potential of the blockchain and its link to the supply chain. The sample consisted of two experts involved in block chain technology such as Ivo Lõhmus (Guardtime OÜ) and Heiti Mering. Additionally, a survey was carried out among people working in the field to provide a higher level of variability among the responses. Information was collected in the form of qualitative interviews for experts and a questionnaire was distributed to people in the field via the Internet. The results of interviews with specialists in the blockchain revealed that the technology is seen differently in their eyes. Considering it only reasonable in the context of data sharing or calling it a trust machine. The importance of the blockchain in companies is certainly rising. Probably at one point the hype will start to go down. It depends on how much is talked about it and how much larger companies are looking at the applicability of the blockchain. Its decline is already being felt today, but more and more of this technology is being used. Companies that have tested this technology for a project found it to be an interesting innovation but did not find sufficient advantage to implement it at the moment. As an important point in the interview, it was pointed out that a lot of people want to implement blockchain because it was blockchain, thinking that it would solve all the problems. All companies that want to invest in blockchain technology must first carry out a strategic assessment to see if this is really feasible for their business model. Many companies may not see the return on investment in the first few years. Any unstructured application of blockchain technology may result in strategic failures. It is therefore recommended that companies conduct extensive assessments at use case level to determine which application can be highlighted by blockchain technology. The locations where it can be used shall be identified and its impact shall be assessed in specific use cases. A proper strategic approach is needed to take maximum advantage of blockchain technology. In addition, it was noted that it would be unreasonable to solve most problems by means of a blockchain. People working in the field found that the blockchain helps us move forward towards handsfree business processes. The three advantages of blockchain, namely greater transparency, fraud reduction and increased security or lower risk, were considered to be the most important. In the context of supply chain, it is very important to ensure transparency, which is one of the shortcomings of existing systems. It is possible to monitor products from from the beginning and it is possible to bring forward illegal activities. Security ensures that without a third party, companies that do not trust each other can share valuable data with each other in a secure and unchanging way. Smart contracts can be used to reduce fraud so that companies can save lost products and other costs. Compared to those interviewed, questionnaire respondents considered blockchain more secure than existing systems. The biggest obstacles to blockchain are the lack of skills and understanding about the given technology, also agreed by the specialists. For those interested in working with blockchain, the recommendation is to find out what options are available by themselves. It would help if trainings were to reflect blockchain technology along with other more required technologies. The big difference between interviewees and questionnaire respondents was regulatory issues. On one hand, specialists said there were no such problems. On the other hand, there's a lot to consider. As it is a decentralised ledger and online participants can be located around the world, this makes the issue of jurisdiction difficult. In addition, it is a question of who is responsible for in-network operations. In addition, there is a problem with compliance with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation, which states that a person has the right to request the deletion of his or her personal data.It is not possible to modify or delete them in the block chain. Survey responses compared to Deloitte's 2019 Global Block Chain survey, the similarity is seen in a couple of places. The block chain is considered more secure than existing systems and there is a high interest about regulatory issues, especially privacy. The study participants considered greater emphasis on the business benefits that can be achieved with this technology. The limitations of this work are the size of the sample and the experts selected to be interviewed. data collection methods, such as group interviews, could have disclosed additional information, allowing participants to express themselves in a different environment. One of the options for further investigation is to include small to medium enterprises in the supply chain and logistics sector. In addition, the potential of blockchain could be focused on the activities of the various forwarding and courier companies, or the possibilities and potential of the specific blockshains could be explored in those respective companies.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Peep Tomingas
Subjects: Transport > Logistics > Logistics and Supply Chain Management > Systems Theory
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Kaur Kriiva
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2020 13:16
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2020 13:16
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5127

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