Konteinerite käsitsi mahalaadimise protsessi automatiseerimine Logistika Pluss OÜ näite

Paju, Keidi (2020) Konteinerite käsitsi mahalaadimise protsessi automatiseerimine Logistika Pluss OÜ näite. [thesis] [en] Automation of the Manual Container Unloading Process On The Example of Logistika Pluss Ltd.

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Abstract

Protsesside parendamine ja automatiseerimine on paljudele ettevõtetele tuleviku võti, eriti ettevõtetele, kus kasutatakse palju inimtööjõudu. Selleks, et ettevõte laieneks on oluline investeerida uutesse tehnoloogiatesse. Oluline on, et ettevõte kaardistaks peamised probleemid, mis on mingi protsessiga seotud ning lihtsaim viis protsessi parendamiseks on automatiseerimine, kui ettevõttel on huvi vähendada käsitsi töö tegemist ning vältida inimlike vigade tekkimist. Töö uurimisobjektiks oli konteineri käsitsi mahalaadimise protsess. Logistika Pluss OÜ jaoks on antud protsess probleemiks olnud pikemat aega, sest see on väga aega nõudev ja kulukas ettevõttele. Eelmisel aastal perioodil 01.01.19-31.12.19 selgus, et ühe aasta jooksul tuli sisse 364 konteinerit ja sissetulevatest konteineri mahtudest 96,43% moodustub kastikaup ja 3,57% moodustub alusekaup. Lisaks hooajalisel perioodil tuleb tavalisemalt rohkem konteinereid sisse, nimelt ühe nädala jooksul tuleb keskmiselt kaheksa konteinerit mahalaadida ning mittehooajaliselt perioodil kolm kuni neli ehk kulutused ettevõttele tõusevad umbes 50% hooajalisel perioodil. Antud lõputöö koostamisel valis autor juhtumiuuringu ja kvantitatiivset meetodit. Eesmärgi lahenduse jõudmiseks tugineti teoreetilisele osale ning vaadeldi viie erineva konteineri mahalaadimise protsessi, millest kaks konteinerit olid 20 jala ja kolm olid 40 jala suuruses. Lisaks ühte konteinerit sai mahalaadida elektrilise kahveltõstukiga, kuna kaubad olid paigutatud alustele ning ülejäänud neli konteinerit laeti maha käsitsi. Vaatluse järeldustest selgus, et kõikide konteinerite käitlemine kokku läks maksma 506,54 eurot ehk siis keskmiselt 101,31 eurot ühe konteineri peale. Juhul kui arvestada ainult käsitsi mahalaadimist ja jättes välja kaupade viimise hoiukohtadele juurde tekkinud hind, läksid kõik konteinerid maksma kokku 477,08 eurot ehk siis ühe konteineri käsitsi mahalaadimine vaadeltavate konteinerite seas läks keskmiselt maksma ettevõttele 119,27 eurot. Lõputöö alguses paika pandud eesmärk leida parima aja- ja kuluefektiivsusega tehnoloogiline lahendus Logistika Pluss OÜ-le, pakkus autor välja lahenduseks, et ettevõte võiks valida robootilise protsessi automatiseerimise ehk RPA (Robotics Process Automation) ning ettevõte võiks kaaluda Cartonmover masina investeerimisse. Välja pakutud lahendus võib olla väga kulukas, kuna süsteemi juurutamiseks oleks esialgu vaja hoida ka inimtööjõudu, kuid ettepanekutes soovitab autor ühendust võtta masinatootjaga Cartonmover, et uurida, mis oleks antud masina soetusmaksumus. Välja pakutud lahendus toetab ainult kastide mahalaadimist ning ei pruugi toetada ebastandartsete kaupade puhul mahalaadimist, kuid kuna enamus konteinerid, mis Logistika Plussi saabuvad on siiski kastidesse paigutatud siis aitab Cartonmover väga palju efektiivsust tõsta. Logistika Plussil võttis keskmiselt konteineri käsitsi mahalaadimine aega 3 tundi ja 50 minutit siis Cartonmover-il on võimekus 40 jalast konteinerit mahalaadida alla 1-1,5 tunniga siis selle lahendusega saaks seda umbes kolm kuni neli korda kiiremini teha ning tööjõu kulutused konteineri kohta väheneksid ligi 50-60%. Lisaks oleks ka töötajate ohutus ja parem tervis tagatud.

Abstract [en]

This thesis analyzes the bottlenecks of the company Logistika Pluss Ltd in the process of unloading goods of how the goods move from the container to the warehouse delivery area and how to increase the efficiency of this process. Warehouse logistics is one of the most costly parts of the supply chain, but plays a major role in the consumer society. In today's world, consumption is constantly rising and with high consumption there is also constant movement of goods, in which time also plays an important role. Companies are trying to find solutions to make the movement of goods even more efficient and faster, because who can offer the best solutions, will also become more attractive to customers. Making processes more efficient and automated is important, and in order to survive in today's rapidly evolving society and competition, it is necessary to increase the company's efficiency and invest in new technologies. Logistika Pluss Ltd has been interested for a long time in improving of the container unloading process in order to make more efficient use of working time and minimize costs. The dissertation uses a case study and a quantitative method and looks at the unloading of five different containers. The aim of the dissertation is to find a technological solution with the best time and cost efficiency for Logistika Pluss Ltd. The author's dissertation is divided into the following parts: 1) The first two chapters provide a theoretical overview of logistics and the supply chain and different types and sizes of containers. In particular, the processes in the warehouse, the storage systems and the IT systems used in warehousing and why it is important to automate the processes in order to have a better understanding what activities and resources are involved during and after unloading. 2) The third chapter introduces the company, describes the processes of receiving and storing of the goods in Logistika Pluss Ltd, analyzes the observation of the container unloading process and how long it takes to unload the container and how fast the goods are taken to warehouse storage and how much each observed container would cost to Logistika Pluss Ltd. In the last part of the dissertation, the author presents the conclusions and observations that became clear during the observation and proposes a solution on how to make the unloading of goods from the container more efficient. 364 containers came in last year during the period of 1st of January till 31th of December and 96.43% of the incoming container volumes were box goods and 3.57% were pallet goods. The analyzes revealed that more containers arrive more often during the seasonal period, an average of eight containers have to be unloaded in one week, and three to four in the non-seasonal period, which means the costs to the company increase significantly during the seasonal period. The findings also showed that the handling of all containers cost 506.54 euros in total, an average of 101.31 euros per container. If only manual unloading is taken into account and excluding the cost of putaway then all containers cost would be a total of 477.08 euros, so the manual unloading of one container among the observed containers would cost the company an average of 119.27 euros. The goal set at the beginning of the dissertation was to find a technological solution with the best time and cost efficiency for Logistika Pluss OÜ, the author proposed a solution so that the company could choose the Robotics Process Automation (RPA) in example the company could consider investing in a Cartonmover machine. In the suggestions, the author suggests contacting the machine manufacturer Cartonmover to find out what the cost of the machine would be, even though the proposed solution can be very costly, as it would initially require manpower to implement the system. In addition the proposed solution only supports the unloading of boxes and may not support the unloading of non-standard goods, but since most of the containers that arrive at Logistika Pluss Ltd has goods mostly placed in boxes and due to that Cartonmover would help increasing efficiency a lot. At Logistika Pluss, it took an average of 3 hours and 50 minutes to unload a container manually, Cartonmover has the ability to unload a 40-foot container in less than 1-1.5 hours, this solution could do the process of unloading about three to four times faster and reduce labor costs per container by about 50 -60%. In addition, the safety and better health of workers would be ensured.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Tarmo Saremati
Subjects: Transport > Logistics > Logistics and Supply Chain Management > Inventory Managment
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Keidi Paju
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2020 06:13
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2020 06:13
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5116

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