Viljavedu raudteel 2019. aasta hooaja näitel

Andrejev, Aleksander (2020) Viljavedu raudteel 2019. aasta hooaja näitel. [thesis] [en] Grain transport by rail on the example of the season 2019.

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Abstract

Lõputöö teemaks valis autor „Viljavedu raudteel 2019. aasta hooaja näitel“, kuna 2019. Aastal oli Eestis rekordiline teraviljasaak ning selle tulemusena tõi raudtee logistikaettevõte Operail AS esmakordselt viljaveod maanteelt raudteele. Lõputöö eesmärk oli uurida, kas teraviljavedu raudteel võrreldes maanteega tasub end ära, millistes kogustes on võimalik raudteel vilja vedada ühe korraga ning kaua võtab ühe rongiveeremi laadimine aega. Samuti leida vastused küsimustele: kuidas oli korraldatud vilja analüüsimine, milline oli vilja veohind raudteel, kas ilm mõjutab viljavedu, milline on vilja maksimum kogus vaguni ja rongi kohta ning milline on Operaili vastutus kogu viljaveo protsessil raudteel. Töö esimeses pooles on välja toodud, milliseid andmete kogumise meetodeid autor kasutas uurimuse koostamiseks. Andmete kogumiseks viidi läbi intervjuu Operaili arenduste projektijuhi ning innovatsioonijuhiga. Lisaks on andmeid saadud põllumajandusettevõttest Baltic Agro AS. Ettevõtet kasutati näitena kirjeldamaks, kuidas toimub viljavedu maanteel. Samuti olid töö kirjutamisel abiks erinevad teaduslikud artiklid, mida tuuakse näidetena, kuidas toimub viljavedu naaberriikides ja mujal maailmas. Autor andis ülevaate raudtee logistikaettevõttest Operail AS. Toodi välja enimkasutatavad raudteevagunid ning vedurid. Samuti tutvustati ettevõtte struktuuri ning kontorite asukohti. Autor analüüsis viljaveoga seotud probleeme ja piiranguid, mida raudteel 2019. aasta hooajal esines. Olulisemateks probleemideks olid vilja analüüsimine. Viljaveol on kvaliteet määrava tähtsusega. Olulised näitajad, mida pidi jälgima on niiskus, prügisus, vilja temperatuur, putukate olemasolu. Operail teostas analüüse sadamas, mis tähendas, et kui vili oli kehva kvaliteediga ja seda vastu võtta ei saanud, siis pidi ta mujale transportima. Samuti vilja pikk veoaeg. Kagu-Eestist mööda maanteed vedades on vilja keskmine veoaeg koos maha ja pealelaadimisega umbes 6 tundi. Mööda raudteed on aga see umbes 24 tundi. Lõputöö raames teostati tasuvusanalüüs, mis tõi välja veohinnad raudteel ja maanteel. Vilja veohind raudteel ühe tonni kohta koos peale- ja mahalaadimistasudega oli 11,83 €/t. Veohind maanteel koos keskmise seisutasuga Muuga sadamas oli 8,04 €/t. Hindade arvutamiseks oli mõlema veoviisi puhul võetud üks ja sama algus- ning lõpp-punkt. Vilja miinimumkogus raudteel on 1 konteiner ehk umbes 21 tonni. Lõputöö tulemusena sai autor, et kui võrrelda ainult veohinda, siis 2019. aasta hooaja näitel on viljavedu maanteel odavam, kui raudteel. Kuna Operail ei kasutanud hinda tonni kohta, vaid rakendas veotasu konteineri kohta ning lisaks maha- ja pealelaadimised, siis ei saanud arvutada, mis kogusest alates on raudteel viljavedu soodsam kui maanteel. Võttes arvesse raudtee erinevaid piiranguid viljaveol, siis töö autor leiab, et viljavedu raudteel on efektiivne vilja kõrghooajal, kui vilja, mida vedada on palju ning autosid pole kerge leida. Sadamates on pikad järjekorrad ja viljavedu raudteel aitaks olukorda leevendada. Tuues viljaveod maanteelt raudteele tõstaks see ohutust maanteedel ning säästaks oluliselt keskkonda. Seejuures tuleks läbi mõelda, kuidas vilja analüüsida ning kuidas parandada vilja mahalaadimist, sest 2019. aasta viljahooajal ei saanud raudteel transporditud vilja kallurautodega samaaegselt maha laadida. Samuti, kui Operail suudaks saavutada raudteesektoris viljaveole soodussegmenti, siis saaksid nad veohinna poolest oluliselt paremini konkureerida maanteetranspordiga.

Abstract [en]

The topic “Grain transport by rail on the example of the season 2019” of the thesis was chosen by the author, because in 2019 there was a record grain harvest in Estonia and as a result the railway logistics company Operail AS brought grain transport from road to rail for the first time. The aim of the thesis was to study whether the transportation of grain by rail compared to road is worthwhile, in what quantities it is possible to transport grain by rail at one time, and how long it takes to load one rolling stock of train. Also to find answers to questions: how the analysis of grain was organized, what was the price of grain transportation by rail, whether the weather affects grain transportation, what is the maximum amount of grain per wagon and train, and what is Operail's responsibility in the whole grain transportation process by rail. The first half of the thesis shows which data collection methods the author used to compile the study. An interview was conducted with Operail's development project manager and innovation manager, to collect the data. In addition, data has been obtained from the agricultural company Baltic Agro AS. The company was used as an example to describe how grain is transported by road. Various scientific articles also helped to write the thesis, which are given as examples of how grain transport takes place in neighbouring countries and elsewhere in the world. Author gave an overview of the railway logistics company Operail AS. The most used railway wagons and locomotives were identified. The structure of the company and the locations of the offices were also introduced. Author analysed the problems and restrictions related to grain transportation that occurred on the railway in season 2019. The most important problems were identified with the analysis of grain. Quality is crucial in grain transport. Important indicators that had to be monitored were humidity, dirt-count, grain temperature, the presence of insects. Operail carried out analyses in port, which meant that if the grain was poor quality and could not be accepted, it had to be transported elsewhere. Also long transport time of grain. The average transport time of grain with unloading and loading is about 6 hours when transporting by road from South-East Estonia. By rail, however, it is about 24 hours. A cost-benefit analysis was carried out as part of the thesis, which identified transport prices by rail and road. The transport price of grain by rail per tonne, including loading and unloading fees, was 11.83 €/t. The transport price on the road with the average parking fee in Muuga Harbour was 8.04 €/t. The same starting and ending points were taken for both modes of transport to calculate prices. The minimum amount of grain on the railway is 1 container or about 21 tons. As a result of the thesis, the author found that if only the transport price is compared, then on the example of the season 2019, grain transport is cheaper by road than by rail. As Operail did not use the price per tonne, but applied a freight rate per container and, in addition, unloading and loading, it was not possible to calculate from which quantity rail transport of grain is cheaper than road transport. Taking into account the various restrictions of grain transportation on the railway, the author of the thesis finds that grain transportation by rail is effective during the peak season, when there is a lot of grain to transport and trucks are not easy to find. There are long queues in ports and transporting grain by rail would help alleviate the situation. Bringing grain transport from road to rail would increase road safety and save the environment significantly. At the same time, consideration should be given to how to analyse the grain and how to improve the unloading of the grain, because during the 2019 grain season, the grain transported by rail could not be unloaded at the same time as the dump trucks. Operail would be able to compete significantly better with road transport in terms of transport costs, if the company was able to achieve a preferential segment for grain transport in the rail sector.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Martin Kuusk
Subjects: Transport > Tansport of Goods
Transport > Rail Transport
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Aleksander Andrejev
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2020 13:03
Last Modified: 04 Jun 2020 13:03
URI: https://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5087

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