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Rannikult naftareostuse likvideerimise olulisus Muraste juhtumi näitel

Rist, Daisi (2015) Rannikult naftareostuse likvideerimise olulisus Muraste juhtumi näitel. [thesis] [en] Importance of Removing Coastal Oil Spills Based on Muraste Oil Spill.

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Abstract

Nafta sattumine vette omab olulist mõju ümbritsevale keskkonnale ning selle kokkukogumine veest ja rannikult aitab vähendada reostuse kahju elusloodusele. Sõltuvalt nafta omadustest tuleneb selle mõju keskkonnale. Naftasaadused võivad sattuda veekeskkonda õnnetuste tagajärjel, mis ebapiisava kokkukogumise tulemusena võib kanduda rannikule. Läänemerel toimus 2012. aastal vaatamata suurele transpordikoormusele (400 000 vedu) väga vähe õnnetusi (149 intsidenti). Õnnetused toimusid peamiselt inimliku eksimuse tagajärjel ning seda aitaks vähendada laevaliikluse optimeerimine, laevatöötajate tähelepanelikkus ning ulatuslikum bioenergia kasutamine. Naftaga määrdumine ja organismi jõudmine mõjutab enim kaldaäärset liigirikast elustikku. Erinevate isendite karv- ja sulgkatte määrdumine kahjustab nende soojapidavust, mille tulemusena halveneb sukeldumisvõime ja toidu hankimine. Nafta organismi jõudmisel kahjustuvad isendi siseorganid, kahjulikud ühendid kuhjuvad organismis ning jõuavad toiduahelasse. Samuti piirab reostus maa-ala kasutusvõimalusi ning toiduks tarbitavate isendite kvaliteeti ja saaduste arvu. Vette jõudnud reostuse kõrvaldamist teostab Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet. Kuni viie tonnise rannikureostuse likvideerimist korraldab kohalik omavalitsus ning ulatuslikumat reostuse likvideerimist juhib päästeasutus. Muraste rannikule kandus masuut 2014. aasta veebruarikuus Naissaare lähedal toimunud punkerdamise tagajärjel. Rannikureostuse kõrvaldamiseks korraldas Harku vallavalitsus kahe kuu jooksul neli koristuspäeva, millest võttis osa 173 vabatahtlikku. Töö autor osales kolmandal koristuspäeval, kus mõistis reostuse ohtlikkust keskkonnale. Kolme kilomeetri pikkuselt rannikualalt koguti kokku 6,6 tonni naftaga määrdunud pinnast. Koristuspäevade läbiviimiseks kulus Harku vallal 5600 eurot, millest suurema osa hõlmasid jäätmekäitlus ja töövahendid. Kuna omavalitsus loobus kahjunõude esitamisest reostuse põhjustajale, tuli nimetatud summa tasuda omavalitsuse eelarvest. Keskkonnainspektsioon määras keskkonnale tekitatud kahjusummaks ligikaudu 7100 eurot ning esitas kahjunõude õigusbüroo kaudu, mis osutus tulemuslikuks ning tasuti sama aasta lõpus. Muraste reostuse kõrvaldamisel osalenud vabatahtlikele suunatud küsimustikule vastas 47 inimest, kellest suurem osa osales ühel koristuspäeval. Küsimustiku tulemuste põhjal osales koristuspäeval kõige enam inimesi vanuses 36-45 ning peamiselt tuldi kümne kilomeetri raadiusest. Vabatahtlike hinnangul olid koristuspäevad hästi organiseeritud ning kõige raskemaks hinnati masuudi koristust kõrkjatest ning lihtsamaks liivalt. Pärast koristustegevust arvasid enamik vastajatest, et maa-ala sai enam-vähem puhtaks, kuid kujutas väikest ohtu keskkonnale. Töö tulemusena selgub, et rannikureostuse likvideerimine võiks olla paremini reguleeritud, kuna hetkel puudub selleks ühtne tegevuskava. Valdkonna paremaks toimetulekuks oleks vajalik riikliku õlifondi loomine, mille loomist pooldas 94% küsimustikule vastanud vabatahtlikest. Teiseks võimaluseks oleks ühise koondaruande esitamine riigi huvide maksimaalseks esindamiseks. Samuti tuleks keskkonnakahju hindamisel arvestada keskkonnale tulenevat kaudset kahju, kuna rannikule jõudnud reostus on vaid üks osa reostusest ning negatiivne mõju võib olla silmale nähtamatu. Edasisteks töö uurimise suundadeks oleks keskkonnakahju määramine, riikliku õlireostusfondi loomine ning rannikureostuse likvideerimise parem reguleerimine.

Abstract [en]

The subject of the graduation thesis is derived from personal experience of removing heavy oil pollution from a nearby coast. The goal was to study the effect of pollution on the surrounding nature, the regulation of coast pollution, the number of accidents in the Baltic Sea, the volunteers’ evaluation of the cleaning day and its activities and to find better opportunities to regulate the field. Preventing and managing oil spills in the environment is an important activity in today’s society, where the amount of shipments has multiplied over the years. In 1996 the total volume of oil shipments in the Gulf of Finland was 22 million tons, but by 2012 it had risen to almost 160 million tons. Due to the increase it is important to observe the traffic at sea. Oil may enter the aquatic environment as a result of accidents and may reach the coast due to insufficient gathering activity. In 2012 there were 400 000 shipments and 149 accidents in the Baltic Sea. The main reason of accidents is human error which indicates that the number of accidents could be even lower. It can be reduced by better organization of the navigation, more efficient operation of the ship’s crew and more extensive use of bioenergy. Exposure to oil has the biggest influence on shore side species-rich biota. Contact with oil damages the fur and feathers of animals and birds, and as a result, their ability to submerge and obtain food worsens. Oil damages internal organs, harmful components accumulate in the body and enter the food chain. It also restricts the use of contaminated area, the quality of game and bird meat as well as the quantity of consumable produce. The Police and Border Guard Board carry out the elimination of the pollution which has reached water. The organizer of removal of coastal pollution of less than five tons is the local administration who may involve in the process rescue operations and the authority of the Environmental Inspectorate. The rescue authority leads extensive oil pollution liquidation. Heavy oil spill reached the coast of Muraste in February 2014 after a bunkering accident near Island Naissaar. Harku commune administration arranged four coastal pollution cleaning days involving 173 volunteers. The author of this graduation thesis attended the cleaning operation and realized how harmful pollution can be to the environment. During the cleaning days 6.6 tons of oil-contaminated soil was collected from a total of about 3 kilometres of coastal area. The total cost of the elimination of Muraste oil spill was 5600 euros which was covered by Harku municipality. Waste management and equipment accounted for most of the costs. Having withdrawn the submission claim for damage to the faulty party of the oil spill, the municipality had to pay for it. The Environmental Inspectorate set a sum of 7100 euros for damage to the environment and submitted a claim for the damage. The money was paid by the end of the year. The majority of the volunteers who participated in the elimination of Muraste oil spill were 36 45 years old and came from the vicinity of Muraste. They mentioned that the cleaning operation was well organized. Cleaning the rushes was the most complicated task, while cleaning the sand was not difficult. Most of the participants thought that after cleaning the area posed little threat to the environment. Overall, the elimination of coastal pollution should be better regulated because currently there is no coherent action plan. Creation of a national fund would help to manage the field better. In addition, indirect damage should be considered while evaluating the environmental damage because the pollution, reaching the coast, is only a fraction of the total pollution. 94% of the volunteers favoured the creation of a national oil spill fund. Oil spills affect wildlife in short and long terms and may not be visible to the eye. Due to that, it is difficult to evaluate the influence on the environment and therefore the indirect effect on wildlife should be taken into account while reckoning environmental damage.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Olav Ojala
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Types of Waste and Basics of Waste Treatment
Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Remediation of Contaminated Soil
Divisions: Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Engineering (until 2017) > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Daisi Rist
Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2015 06:01
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2015 06:01
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/971

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