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Ehituslik eelarvestamine - ohud ja võimalused

Mirka, Marti (2014) Ehituslik eelarvestamine - ohud ja võimalused. [thesis] [en] Construction budgeting -risks and possibilities.

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Abstract

Lõputöös „Ehituslik eelarvestamine – ohud ja võimalused“ käsitletakse eelarvestamise protsessiga seonduvaid riske ja võimalusi. Uuritakse ohtude tekkepõhjusi, nende hulga vähendamise ning kogu protsessi efektiivsema toimimise võimalusi. Teemakäsitlus hõlmas eelarvestamise tähtsamaid etappe, vaatles tööde olemust, tuvastas olulisemad ohukohad ning pakkus lõputöö kirjutaja kogemuste ja teistele allikatele tuginedes võimalikud lahendused. Tekkinud probleemid on tingitud eelarvestamist läbi viivate töötajate ebakompetentsusest, osaliselt puudulikust kommunikatsioonist ning tehniliste võimaluste vähesusest. Probleemide käsitlemisel lähtuti peatöövõttu pakkuva ehitusfirma eelarvestaja vaatepunktist, kuid probleemide olemus laieneb ka teistele ehitusega tegelevatele ettevõtetele. Hinnapakkumise koostamine peab võimalusel olema motiveeritud meeskonnatöö protsessi algusest saavutamaks parimat tulemust ehk hanke võitmist. Pakkumisprotsessist osavõtvad töötajad peavad teadma, millist panust neilt oodatakse, milliste andmete alusel tööd sooritatakse, mis kuupäevaks on vaja esitada töö tulemus, kuidas ja kelle vahendusel toimub infovahetus. Olulised parameetrid protsessi õnnestumiseks peavad olema selgeks tehtud ja fikseeritud. Tehnilised vahendid on olulised aga mitte peamised. Oluline komponent koostatava hinna kujunemisel konkurentsivõimeliseks produktiks on analüütiline osa. Referentsobjektide rohkus, nende andmete süsteemsus ja lihtsasti kasutatavus on suureks abiks võrdlusmomentide tekkeks ja seeläbi hinna võimalikuks korrigeerimiseks. Oluline on süsteem andmete säilitamiseks ja arhiveerimiseks. Pakkumisega kaasnevad riskid tuleb tuvastada, üles märkida ja hiljem hinnata. Riskide eiramine on ohuks objekti kasumlikule realiseerumisele. Ohtude hindamisest peavad osa võtma nii kontori- kui platsitöötajad, et tekiks võimalikult erinevaid vaatenurkasid, mis annavad aluse diskussiooniks ja objektiivsemaks resultaadiks. Lõputöö autor loodab, et analoogseid teemakäsitlusi võtavad arutada mitmed asjatundjad, sest vajadus selle järgi on ilmne. Kindlasti ei piisa personaalsete kogemuste ja neil baseeruvate lahendite presenteerimisest absoluutse tõena. Kuna tegemist on riigipiire ületava teemaga, võiks eelarvestamisega seonduvad küsimusi arutada rahvusvahelised töörühmad, läbi viia võiks mitmeid küsitlusi ja uuringuid ehitusettevõtete spetsialistide seas ning koguda infot mitmetest riikidest seal esinevate samalaadsete küsimuste ja pakutavate lahenduste kohta.

Abstract [en]

The topic of this final paper is “Construction Budgeting – Risks and Possibilities”. The author chose this topic because budgeting is of great importance in the working process and possible budgeting errors have a substantial impact on the profitable realisation of the project. Deficiencies that have occurred are usually treated as individual cases, they are not analysed and, consequently, the results of analysis are not used for improving working operations in order to prevent errors in the future. When writing this final paper, the author repeatedly witnessed the fact that the risks and pos-sibilities related to budgeting have not been comprehensively treated neither in Estonia nor abroad. Single episodes such as the necessity of time management and various possibilities for volume cal-culations have been described but, regrettably, not the process as a whole. Therefore, it is difficult to track how the occurrence of one problem could affect a number of working operations. The pur-pose of this paper was to monitor the budgeting process in greater detail, identify problems by stages, and propose solutions to these problems. Due to the lack of literature on this topic, the author proceeded from his 14 years of experience in budgeting and added some episodes from other authors’ approaches to various problems. Potential risks and possibilities created through the prevention thereof are viewed step by step as of receiving a price inquiry until issuing a complete offer to the customer. The author identifies problems on the basis of occurrence, describes how these problems could be handled, and offers different solutions. In addition, the author shares some ideas in connection with the general optimisation of the working process. As a solution, the author primarily suggests the enhancement of budgeting as team work through better communication, the concretisation of work, the use of newest technologies, and more efficient customer communication. The process concerned is seen primarily as the cooperation of different specialists contributing to the outcome within the limits of their competence and time resources. Volume calculation is unanimously considered the most time-consuming part of budgeting as it may constitute 50-70% of the total volume of works. To enable the budgeting specialist to analyse price quotations and various risks accompanying the tender, in addition to the work described above, different solutions must be used. One possibility is the calculation of vol-umes from the BIM model which, by means of special programs, is fast and inerrant. There is al-ways the possibility of human mistakes, but the probability of the occurrence thereof can be signifi-cantly reduced by the thorough consideration of the working process and the involvement of the right people. The problems handled and solutions offered in this paper would definitely need further, more ex-haustive research and more detailed analysis. There is much to learn from the experiences of both local and foreign companies. Correct budgeting serves as the prerequisite for the profitable outcome of the construction project, and its improvement should be the objective of every construction company.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Pille Hamburg
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Construction economics
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Marti Mirka
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2014 11:20
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2014 11:20
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/752

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