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Üksikelamu viimistlusmaterjalide ja tehnoseadmete hinnatav eluiga

Valler, Mart (2014) Üksikelamu viimistlusmaterjalide ja tehnoseadmete hinnatav eluiga. [thesis] [en] The Estimated Service Life of Finishing Materials and Technical Equipment of a Detached House.

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Abstract

Koduostja sooviks on tavaliselt osta korralik kodu. Eeldus on ka, et kinnisvara ost on midagi kindlat ja püsivat. Selliste eelduste ja lootustega, kuid ilma pädeva spetsialisti abita, võime sattuda olukorda, kus mõne aja pärast pole meil kodu ja tagatiseta jäänud pangalaen ootab tasumist. Uurimistöös võtsin ülesandeks analüüsida viimistlusmaterjalide ja tehnoseadmete hinnatavat eluiga. Eluea analüüsis tõin välja materjalide ja seadmete hooldus-, vahetuskorrad ja kulud lihtsustatult, mis on vajalikud hoone väärtuse säilitamiseks ja mille tegemise vajalikkusest ei ole tavaliselt majaomanikul enne mingit infot, kui juba kahju on pöördumatu ja kulutused ületavad taluvuse piiri. Elueaks valisin kõige tavalisema projekti kirjutatava eluea – 50 aastat. Materjalide valiku tegemine on ka lihtsam, kui saame kindlad olla, et ei pea teatud töid enam hoone eluea jooksul uuesti tegema. Ehitusettevõtja valikul on kindlasti vajalik vastavate materjalide paigalduse koolituse läbimine materjali tootja juhendite järgi. Sama oluline on ka järelevalve pidev koolitamine. Kandekonstruktsioonide puhul ei ole vaja teha hoone eluea jooksul lisakulutusi, kui konstruktsioon on ehitatud kvaliteetsest materjalist ja pädeva ehitaja poolt. Tähtis on kogu dokumentatsiooni olemasolu ja kaetud tööde aktid koos fotodega tegelikust olukorrast. Vahetust või korrastamist vajavad kattematerjalid ja nende tööde teostamise tihedus sõltuvalt materjalidest tuleb välja tabelitest. Tehnoseadmete puhul on olukord keerulisem, kuna seadme ostu ja õige paigaldusega ei ole asi veel lõppenud. Seadme seadistamine ja töökorras hoidmine on pidevalt korduv tegevus. See tähendab, et peame leidma usaldusväärse partneri seadme hooldusel aastateks. Ei ole mõistlik seadmeid osta kampaania korras müüjatelt, kellel puudub hoolduspädevus. Tehnoseadmete vahetuse ja hoolduse tõin välja eraldi tabelite kaudu. Tehnoseadmete valikut on raskem prognoosida, kuna me ei suuda ette näha arenguid uute tehnoloogiate arenduses. Torustike ja juhtmete vahetus ei ole vajalik 50 aasta jooksul, kui need on kvaliteetsed ja paigaldus korrektne. 50 aastat on pikk periood ja kaheaastane garantiiperiood ei lahenda neid probleeme, mis maja omamisega kaasnevad. Seega on oluline hakata rääkima hoonete puhul pikemast garantiist ja seadmete puhul tööeast täpsemalt. Garantiiperioodi saame pikendada ainult hästi läbimõeldud projekti puhul. Esimese sammuna tuleb kõrvale jätta vähempakkumine, sest vähempakkumine lähtub ainult ehitushinnast. Ehitushind ei ole ainus kulu hoone eluea puhul. Igal materjalil ja seadmel on eluiga, peame suutma kajastada seda hinnapakkumises. Selle järgi on tellijal võimalik otsustada, kas odavam pakkumine on ikka odavam. Teiseks on vaja hakata teostama paremat järelevalvet, et ei väljastataks ehituslubasid eskiisprojekti või eelprojekti alusel. Põhiprojekti oleks tellijal soovituslik tuua sisse ka tööprojekt, kus saab lahendada materjalid ja seadmed, ning määrata nende eluiga. See kõik võib tunduda hetkel bürokraatia suurendamise sooviga, kuid hoone eluea tagamiseks ei saa jätta neid lahendusi töömehe kanda. Kui meil on projekt poolik, siis tavaliselt on eramaja tellija nõustajaks töömees või seadme müügimees. Millest nemad juhinduvad on raske arvata, aga enamikel juhtudel mitte erialastest teadmistest. Saan uurimistöö võtta kokku mõttega - hoone eluea tagab kvaliteet ja kvaliteedi tagab läbimõeldud projekt.

Abstract [en]

A person buying a home usually wishes to buy a good home. It is also presumed that buying real estate is something secure and stable. With these presumptions and hopes, but without the help of a competent specialist, we may end up in a situation where we no longer have a home after a while and the unsecured bank loan is waiting to be paid off. In the research, my task was to analyse the service life of finishing materials and technical equipment. The analysis of service life also provides expenses necessary to maintain the value of a building; the homeowner generally has no information about the need for those expenses before the damages are already irreversible and expenses are past a manageable level. The cost calculations are not based on EVS 807:2010 and EVS 885:2005 standards but are adapted by the author. The service life used in the research is the most common service life provided in projects – 50 years. Selecting materials is also easier when we can be sure that we do not have to redo certain works during the building’s lifetime. When selecting a building contractor, it is definitely necessary for it to have passed a training of installing the corresponding materials based on the instructions of the material’s manufacturer. Constant training of supervising staff is equally important. In the case of load-bearing structures, no additional expenses need to be made during the building’s service life if the structure has been made of good quality materials by a competent builder. It is important that all documents exist, as well as acts for completed works together with photographs of the actual condition. Covering materials requiring changing or maintenance and the frequency of performing those works based on materials is provided in tables. The situation is more complicated for technical equipment, because it does not end with the purchase and correct installation of the equipment. Regulating and maintaining the equipment in proper working order is constantly repeated. This means that we have to find a reliable partner for maintaining the equipment for years. It is unreasonable to buy equipment during a campaign from sellers who have no competence for maintenance. I provided the changing and maintenance of technical equipment in separate tables. The selection of technical equipment is harder to predict, because we cannot foresee developments in new technology. Changing pipes and wires is not necessary within 50 years if they are of good quality and installed properly. 50 years is a long time and a two-year guarantee does not solve the problems involved in owning a house. Therefore, it is important to start talking about a longer guarantee for buildings and more precisely about the useful life of equipment. We can only extend the guarantee to projects which are well planned out. Firstly, the adjucation must be left aside, because adjucations are based entirely on the cost of construction. The cost of construction is not the only expense in the service life of a building. Each material and device has a service life, which needs to be reflected in the price offer. Based on that, the buyer is able to decide whether the cheaper offer is, in fact, cheaper. Secondly, better supervision must be established, so that construction permits would not be issued based on the draft project or preliminary design documentation. It is recommended for the buyer to add a working project to the main project, in which materials and equipment can be resolved and their service life determined. At present, this may seem like a desire to increase bureaucracy, but those issues cannot be left on construction workers to ensure the lifetime of a building. If the project is half-finished, the consultant for the person contracting a private home is the construction worker or a salesman for a device. It is hard to guess what they take as basis, but in most cases it is not professional knowledge. I can summarize the research with one notion - the service life of a building is ensured by quality and quality is ensured by a thoroughly elaborated project.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Anti Hamburg
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Building construction and design > Building technical systems and energy efficiency
Construction > Building Construction > Building construction and design > Building materials
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Mart Valler
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2014 11:25
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2014 11:25
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/687

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