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Surumaagaasil töötavate sõidukite efektiivsus AS Eesti Posti näitel

Rainer, Teidla (2014) Surumaagaasil töötavate sõidukite efektiivsus AS Eesti Posti näitel. [thesis] [en] Efficiency of compressed natural gas fueled vehicles AS Eesti Post example.

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Abstract

Terves maailmas seistakse silmitsi probleemiga, et fossiilse kütuse varud pole lõpmatud. Lähitulevikus seisab transpordiettevõtetel ees suur väljakutse - ehitada üles süsinikuvaba energiavarustus. Hetkel võib järeldada, et tulevikus tõusevad alternatiivsed kütused väga tähtsale kohale. Suure tõenäosusega osutub selleks Euroopa direktiiv, mis sätestab aastaks 2020 riigi kütuste tarbimise varustada 10% biokütusega ja 20% alternatiivsete kütustega, sealhulgas maagaasiga. Lõputöös koguti materjali erinevate kütusteliikide kohta. Lähemalt keskenduti surumaagaasile ja selle olukorrale Euroopas, kui ka Eestis. Tutvustati CNG ajalugu ja sõidukeid. Analüüsi näol võrreldi kütusteliike omavahel. Analüüsis selgus, et efektiivsem kütuseliik AS Eesti Posti sõidukipargis on surumaagaas, kuid samas on selle kasutamisel ka palju kitsendusi. Põhjuseid, miks eelistada surumaagaasi teistest kütuseliikidest: 1) kütuse maksumus 100 km läbimiseks kõige väiksem; 2) puhtamad heitgaasid; 3) väiksemad ülalpidamiskulud; 4) kuna kütus on õhust kergem ning kõrgema süttimistemperatuuriga on ta seetõttu ohutum; 5) nafta sõltuvuse vähendamine; 6) eeskuju keskkonnasäästlikuma transpordi edendamises; 7) soosiv kütuseliik Euroopa seadusandluses; 8) toetuste saamine puhtama kütuseliigiga sõiduki soetamisel. Lõputöös on välja toodud ka põhjuseid, miks eelistada teisi kütuseliike, kuid neid argumente saab ümber lükata surugaasi kasutamise tugevuste ja võimalustega. Näiteks üheks miinuseks on hõre tanklavõrgustik, kuid seda on võimalik parandada suureneva huvi kasvamisega CNG vastu, sellest tulenevalt hakatakse rohkem tanklaid rajama. Inimeste teadlikust tõstes garanteerime puhtama ja odavama kütuseliigi otstarbekusest. Mõeldes tulevikule on sellel suur tähtsus. Tehtud analüüsi tulemusena selgus, et surumaagaas kütusena on kõige odavam ning seda kasutavate sõidukite ülalpidamiskulud kõige väiksemad. Samuti ilmnes, et CNG sõidukite heitgaasides CO2 sisaldus on teistest kütuseliikidest madalam, mis omab kliimamuutuste kohapealt suurt mõju. Sellest tulenevalt teeb autor ettepaneku suurendada surugaasi sõidukite osakaalu AS Eesti Postis. Autor loodab, et käesolevast tööst on kasu nii vaadeldavale ettevõttele, kui ka samas valdkonnas tegelevatele ettevõtetele ja pakutud ettepanekud edendavad firma igapäevatööd.

Abstract [en]

In the near future, transport business stands in front of a large challenge to ensure sustainability and build a carbon-free energy supply. It can be concluded that it will be with a serious need. By 2020, The European Union provides national fuel consumption with biofuels to supply 10% and 20% of alternative fuels, including natural gas. People are increasingly using alternative fuels. CNG is an alternative to fill the conditions of the EU. It is a readily available alternative to gasoline that is made by compressing natural gas to less than 1% of it’s volume at standard atmospheric pressure. Consisting mostly of methane, CNG is odorless, colorless and tasteless. Thesis material gives an overview of various types of fuels. Main focus is on compressed natural gas and the situation in Europe, as well as in Estonia. There is also an overview of CNG vehicles and its history. The aim of this analysis is to compare the effectiveness of different types of fuel. To comply the aim the following activities are necessary: 1) collect data about different types of fuel; 2) analyze and outline the results of the calculation parameters; 3) do a SWOT analysis for different types of fuel used by AS Eesti Post. The thesis is divided into four parts, starting with the introduction of environment and sustainable development and ending with the author’s view and suggestions. The first chapter briefly describes sustainable development - transport and fossil origin fuel. More focus is on compressed natural gas, and its situation in Europe and Estonia. The second chapter introduces AS Eesti Post as a company, its management structure and field of activity. More will be discussed the different fuel types of vehicles that are used at AS Eesti Post. The third chapter analyzes the different types of fuels. Closer look is taken of the numerical figures about different types of fuels: 1) the cost (€) of fuel per 100 km; 2) maintenance costs; 3) the amount of CO2 in the exhaust gases. In addition to that, author has analyzed different fuels of vehicles what used AS Eesti Post by using SWOT method. It will be shown in their associated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats that accompany their use. In the last chapter author gives out suggestions and advise how AS Eesti Post and also consumers can use more compressed natural gas by routinely. The analysis showed that the most efficient type of fuel in AS Eesti Post vehicle fleets is CNG, but it also has a lot of restrictions. The reasons for the choice of compressed natural gas: 1) the cost of fuel per 100 km is the smallest; 2) emissions are cleaner; 3) lower maintenance costs; 4) the safest fuel since it is lighter than air, and it has a higher ignition temperature; 5) Reducing dependence on oil; 6) set an example in promoting greener transport; 7) in a favor type of fuel of the European legislation; 8) grants from cleaner fuel type of the vehicle acquisition. There were also reasons why to prefere other types of fuel, but these arguments can refute the use of compressed natural gas on strengths and opportunities. For example, one disadvantage is sparse of the gas station network, but it is possible to improve by increasing interest in the growth of the CNG, consequently, more fuel stations will build. Raising people's awareness, we can guarantee of cleaner and cheaper fuel type expediency. Thinking about the future, this has a great importance. Author hopes that this work benefits to both: to AS Eesti Post as well as to the companies in the observed field and related fields, and offered suggestions will help their business to run better.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Agu Eensaar
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Sustainable Ecological Technologies
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Rainer Teidla
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2014 08:12
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 08:12
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/617

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