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Karksi-Nuia jäätmemajanduse hetkeolukord ja arenguvõimalused

Laanemets, Liisi (2014) Karksi-Nuia jäätmemajanduse hetkeolukord ja arenguvõimalused. [thesis] [en] The Current Status and Development Opportunity of Waste Management in Karksi-Nuia.

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Abstract

Käesolev töö annab ülevaate jäätmemajanduse ning korraldatud jäätmeveo olukorrast Karksi-Nuia väikelinnas ning uurib elanike suhtumist linna jäätmemajanduse olukorda üldiselt. Töö annab ülevaate jäätmemajanduse parendamise võimalustest ning toob välja kitsasakohad Karksi-Nuia linnas ning autoripoolsed soovitused olukorra parendamiseks. Aastas tekkinud jäätmekoguseid on võimalik vähendada, võttes võimalikult suure osa jäätmetest taaskasutusele uute toodete tooraine või energiaallikana. Töö eesmärgi saavutamiseks tutvus töö autor visuaalselt linnas erinevate jäätmete ladustamise võimalustega. Analüüsis olemasolevat olukorda ja seadustele vastavust. Elektroonilisest küsitlusest saadud andmete põhjal tegi autor kokkuvõtted ja tõi välja elanike harjumused ja rahulolu jäätmete ladustamisel ja sorteerimisel. Ülevaate saamisel olid abiks nii linna hooldusettevõte, jäätmeveoga tegelev ettevõte, kui valla allasutused. Töö teises peatükis võrreldakse korraldatud jäätmeveo seadusest tulenevaid nõudeid ja nende täitmist väikelinnas. Karksi- Nuia linna jäätmemajanduse olukorda analüüsides tulid välja järgmised probleemid:  linnaelanikel ei ole võimalik kohapeal üle anda suur- ja ehitusjäätmeid;  pakendikonteineried on linnas liiga vähe;  puudub biojäätmete ladustamise koht;  jäätmete paremale sorteerimisele aitaks kaasa kindlasti inimeste teadlikkuse kasv. Kolmas peatükk keskendub elektroonilise küsitluse tulemuste kokkuvõtetele ja järeldustele. Küsitlusi saadeti välja 75 tükki ning neist vastanute arv oli 48. Vastanutelt küsiti leibkondade suurust, konteineri mahtu, veosagedust, paberi ja pakendi jäätmete sorteerimis harjumusi, hinna sobivust, rahulolu avalike konteinerite suhtes ning elanikud said lisada kommentaare. Küsitlusest selgusid järgmised probleemid:  17% elanikest kasutab keskmise suurusega konteinerit, mis ei täitu nelja nädala jooksul, kuid maksma peavad inimesed konteineri eest täisraha; 32  elanike rahulolu küsitlusest selgus, et 42% sorteerivad pakendi jäätmeid Seega sorteerivad jäätmeid alla poole küsitusel osalenutest;  vanapaberi konteiner on tihti ületäitunud ja inimesed eelistavad papi panna olmejäätmete konteinerisse või siis põletada. Spetsiaalsesse konteinerisse viib pappi ainult 36% küsitletud inimestest;  pakendi konteinerid asuvad linna keskel ja äärelinna elanikel ei ole mugav oma sorteeritud pakendid nii kaugele viia;  karksi-Nuia linnas on Taaskasutusorganisatsiooni poolt loodud vanapaberi kaste üks ning pakendi jäätmete kogumiskonteinereid neli. Elanike uuringust selgus, et konteinereid peaks olema rohkem. Neljandas peatükis antakse ülevaade jäätmehoolduse üldistest parendamisvõimalustest. Viiendas peatükis toob autor välja kõik uurimuse käigus selgunud kitsaskohad ning annab ka omapoolsed soovitused nende minimeerimiseks. Uurimuse põhjal võib öelda, et kohalik omavalitsus on minimaalselt tegelenud jäätmekultuuri edendamise ning elanike teavitamisega. Sellegi poolest on olukord linnas üsnagi positiivne ning suurt rõhku pööratakse jäätmemajanduse põhimõtete tutvustamisele juba lasteaias ning gümnaasiumis. Töös selgus, et järelvalvet jäätmeseadusest tulenevate õigusaktide täitmise üle Karksi-Nuia linnas ei teostata ning seega pole fikseeritud ka ühtegi rikkumist. Tihedamat reguleerimist ning järelvalvet vajab avalik vanapaberi konteiner ning linna erinevatesse piirkondadesse võiks lisada mõne pakendi- ning vanapaberi konteineri või pakkuda elanikele pakendikottide veoteenust. Üheks kõige suuremaks probleemiks peab autor aga seda, et omavalitsuse poolt on reguleerimata suurjäätmete ning ehitusjäätmete äraandmine. Kohapealsete võimaluste puudumine on üheks põhjuseks, miks tihtilugu satuvad just nii vana mööbel, kui ehitusparaht metsa alla. Autor soovitab, kas hooajalist jäätmete äraandmise võimalust või siis statsionaarse jäätmejaama rajamist. Kohaliku omavalitsuse soov antud soovitusi järgida edendaks kindlasti Karksi-Nuia linna jäätmemajanduse olukorda ning tõstaks elanike rahulolu. Seoses uurimustöö alguses räägitud majanduskasvu kiirusest ja igapäevase tarbimise suurenemisest, on keskkonna seisukohalt oluline luua lahendus sorteerimise ja taaskasutamise suurendamiseks, olenemata sellest, mis vormis seda korraldatakse.

Abstract [en]

Current status of the waste management and its development opportunity in Karksi-Nuia. This project gives an overview of the condition of waste management and the organised waste transport of the small-town of Karksi-Nuia and also examines the attitude of its inhabitants to waste management in general. The following gives an overview of the possibilities for improving waste management, and brings out the restrictions in the small-town of Karksi-Nuia and official recommendations to improve the situation. It is possible to reduce the waste generated per year by maximizing recycling and reusing waste as raw materials or as an energy source. In order to achieve the objective of this project, the author became acquainted with the various waste storage facilities and their capabilities, as well as analysed the existing situation and its conformity with the law. Data obtained from an electronic survey was used by the author to make conclusions about resident’s recycling habits and overall satisfaction of waste removal. The achievement of this project was also largely contributed by the cooperation of the municipality’s care companies as well as waste removal agencies, which all helped provide information for this project. In the second chapter, the requirements of the laws of organised waste transport are compared with their enforcement in a small-town. When analysing the situation of waste management in Karksi-Nuia, the following issues were noted:  there are no facilities that accept large industrial and constructional waste;  there aren’t enough recycling bins for plastic type packaging;  there are no bio-organic waste facilities;  proper recycling would be greatly improved by people’s awareness. The third chapter focuses on the results of the electronic survey and its conclusions. Out of the 75 surveys sent out, 48 of them were returned. The surveyed were asked about household and waste bin size, frequency of waste removal, recycling habits, price satisfaction (of waste removal), and satisfaction of the condition of public waste containers. They were also able to add comments and suggestions below. The following problems were discovered: 34  17% of the population uses a medium-sized container, which will not be filled within four weeks, but the full price is paid each time;  it was discovered that only 42% people recycle and sort their waste which means less than half do not do any recycling at all;  paper recycling containers are often overflowing, resulting in people putting their paper and cardboard waste in municipal trash bins or burning it. Only 36% of the surveyed put their waste into the corresponding recycling containers;  recycling bins are located mostly at the town centre, which makes it inconvenient for people living in suburban areas;  the Organization for Recycling has provided only one recycling bin for paper and four bins for plastic and other packaging. The study revealed that there should be more containers added. The fourth chapter provides an overview of the possibilities for improvement in the waste management sector. In the fifth chapter, the author brings out all the difficulties and issues discovered during the course of the study, and gives recommendations to solve them. On the basis of the study, it can be concluded that the local government has been minimally engaged in the promotion of the culture of recycling, and in creating awareness in its residents. Nonetheless, the situation in the town is quite positive and great emphasis is placed on introducing principles of waste management to the kindergarteners and educational system. It turned out that there is no supervision over the enforcement of littering and waste disposal laws, thus there have been no violations registered. One of the most major problems noted by the author is the unregulated disposal of construction and industrial waste. The lack of local facilities is one of the reasons why old furniture and construction debris are often found in roadside ditches and forests. What the author proposes as possible solutions are either a seasonal pick up or the establishment of a stationary facility for such waste disposal. Is quite clear that if we want to progress into developing a sustainable environment, we need to use natural resources more sustainably and responsibly and that can be achieved, for the most part by proper recycling. For that purpose it is imperative for the local and regional municipalities to increase its contribution in raising awareness of its peoples. The regulation of paper recycling needs 35 to be improved and additional plastic and packaging bins are needed. The author also recommends the creation of a seasonal opportunity for residents to get rid of industrial waste. The desire of the local government to comply with these recommendations would improve the waste management sector and would raise public satisfaction. In relation to the speed of economic growth and daily increase in consumerism, as mentioned above, it is important from the point of view of the environment to create a solution to improve recycling and waste disposal regardless of the form in which it is organised.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Ly Laanemets
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Liisi Laanemets
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2014 07:45
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 07:46
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/584

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