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Elektrimootoriga autode keskkonnamõju

Siil, Simo (2014) Elektrimootoriga autode keskkonnamõju. [thesis] [en] Environmental Impact of Electric Cars.

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Abstract

Üha enam on köitnud üldsuse tähelepanu probleemid, mis on seotud transpordi ja liiklusvahenditega nende omadusest saastada keskkonda. Töös on näidatud, et elektriautode mõju keskkonnale on säästvam võrreldes sisepõlemismootoritega autodega tänu selle töös hoidmiseks kasutatavale akule, mis ei eralda mürgiseid aineid õhku ning mis ei vaja pidevalt osade vahetusi. Ka elektri, mida kasutab energiana elektriauto, tootmise juures on mingil määral keskkonna saastamise oht olemas kuigi võrreldes teiste sõiduvahendi liikidega suhteliselt olematu. Töös on näidatud, et võrdlustes teiste liiklusvahenditega on elektriautol mitmeid eeliseid, milleks on: • autol puuduvad mootori õlid, rihmad, küünlad, filtrid jne; • auto pidurid töötavad lihtsamas režiimis, ideaalvariandis hõõrdumisel töötavad pidurid puuduvad; • ummikutes seistes autol energiat peaaegu ei kulu; • autol puuduvad külmkäivitused; • autol puuduvad heitgaasid; • 100 km sõidukulu on umbes üks euro ja viiskümmend senti; • auto on töökindel; • auto on peaaegu hooldusvaba; • autot on lihtne kasutada; • autol on pikk kasutusiga. Elektriauto ei ole tänaseks saavutanud väga suurt populaarsust oma mõnede puuduste, millest peamised on: • külmas kliimas läbisõidu vähenemine; • pikkade vahemaade raskendatud läbimine; • pikk laadimisaeg; • kallis hind võrreldes tavaautoga; • väike valik erinevaid mudeleid; • remontida ja hooldada saab ainult ametliku esindaja juures, teistel kogemused puuduvad. Inseneridel ja teadlastel on veel palju tööd teha, et muuta elektriauto kasumlikumaks sõiduvahendiks, mida saaksid kasutada erinevate ametite esindajad. Siiani seab elektriauto teatud piirangud, milleks üheks olulisemaks näitajaks on lühimaasõidud. Töös on näidatud, et elektriautot saab edukalt kasutada just linnades ja äärelinnades. Auto mõju keskkonnale on sääslikum ning kindlasti kordades väiksem kui teiste liiklusvahendite kasutamisel. Lõputöö autori ettepanekud elektriautode kiiremaks ja tõhusamaks kasutuselevõtuks on järgmised: • Eesti riik ning elektriautode ametlikud esindajad peaks elektriautode kohta rohkem infot jagama; • Eesti riik ning elektriautode ametlikud esindajad võiks korraldada infopäevi ja -üritusi just äärelinnade ja väikelinnade keskustes; • jätkata riigipoolset toetuste andmist elektriauto soetamisel; • siduda noored pered Eesti riigiga elektriauto ostmisel (näiteks anda suurem soodustus, kui noored loovad pere, samas lõpetavad ülikooli ning asuvad tööle teatud ajaks vajalikele töökohtadele jne); • teha konkreetsed soodustused väga vajalike ametikohtade või väga madalapalgaliste ametikoha töötajatele nn. lisaboonusena (näiteks medõed, teenindajad, õpetajad, lasteaiaõpetajad jne). Autori hinnangul on elektriautol tulevikku ning seda teemat on vajalik igapäevaselt käsitleda, inimesi teavitada järjepidevalt ning anda igakülgne panus auto edasiarendamisele.

Abstract [en]

The presented thesis topic will be about "environmental impact of electric cars". The topic was interesting for the reason that today 's electric vehicles are as reinvented bicycles. Electric cars have been a popular topic lately. The environment is getting worse by the day and people start to invent new ways and new activities to rescue, save, and clean the environment. True, one of the most powerful ways to improve and develop is to use cars as transportation and other vehicles are growing all the time, along with the pollution of the environment. Electric car is a perfect example, it protects the environment and is good, helpful and necessary for people, because the car is an inevitable companion for today's lifestyle. People start moving out from the cities to more suburban areas, where existence of a car is required and some of the families even have several cars. The thesis aims to find out whether the electric car is less polluting impact on the environment that other cars. The author wants to explore the topic to give an overview of the need for an electric car, and the direct impact on the environment. Goal of reaching a final thesis consists of the following tasks: • To provide an overview of the cars in general, including electric cars; • To provide an overview of the different engines of cars and their impact on the environment; • To analyze the environmental impact of electric powered cars. It is presented that the electric vehicles have a more sustainable effect on the environment as compared to internal combustion engine cars, due to its use of the battery, which do not emit toxic substances into the air and which do not need to continuous exchange of the parts. Also, the electricity which is used as energy by the electric car, has a small degree of contamination of the environment, although compared to other means of travel, the degree of pollution is relatively non-existent. The work has shown that the comparisons with other vehicles, electric cars have a number of advantages, which are presented in the list below: • Has no car engine oils, belts , plugs, filters, etc.; • The car's brakes are working in a simpler mode, ideally during the friction working brakes are missing; • Standing in the car deadlock with almost no energy cost; • Car has no cold starts; • Car has no exhaust fumes; • 100 km running cost of about one euro and fifty cents; • The car is dependable; • The car is almost maintenance free; • The car is easy to use; • The car has a long lifespan. The work has proven that electric cars can successfully be used in cities and suburbs. The environmental impact of the car is more economical and certainly several times less than the use of other means of transport. The thesis author's suggestions for electric cars faster and more efficient deployment are as follows: • The Estonian state and the official representatives of the electric cars electric cars have to share more information; • The Estonian state and the official representatives of electric cars could hold information days and events just on the outskirts of towns and small urban centers; • Continuing providing financial aid to buyers of electric cars; • Link young families with Estonia in regards to electric car purchases (for example, to provide a greater discount, to people who create families, to young students who finish university and are located in a certain areas for a period of time necessary to work on jobs, etc.); • Make specific discounts for extremely necessary establishments or very low-paid employees. As an added bonus (for example, nurses, teachers, kindergarten teachers, etc.). The author estimate that the electric car has a future and this topic should be addressed on a daily basis, people should be constantly informed and provide a comprehensive contribution to the further development of the car.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Agu Eensaar
Subjects: Technoecology
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Simo Siil
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2014 07:54
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 07:54
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/562

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