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Noarootsi maaelu ja looduskasutuse jätkusuutlikkus

Uusmaa, Heleri (2014) Noarootsi maaelu ja looduskasutuse jätkusuutlikkus. [thesis] [en] The Sustainability of Rural Life Development and Utilization of Natural Resources in Noarootsi.

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Abstract

Jätkusuutlikkus on mitmeti mõistetav teema ja sellel on erinevad harud. Peamine mõte on see, et tegeletakse säästva arenguga kogukonna hüvanguks tulevikku silmas pidades. Eesti maapiirkonnad on erinevad, aga siiski rühmitatavad. Enamus valdadest ei ole jätkusuutlikud või vähemalt ei vasta need EMÜ tüpoloogias väljatoodud standarditele. Arengu toimumiseks on tähtsateks teguriteks maarahvastiku vanuseline koosseis ja haridus, kui atraktiivne on elukeskkond ning, kas on konkurentsivõimelisi töökohti ja milline on osutatavate teenuste süsteem. Ühe tüpoloogia järgi langeb Noarootis vald 4. klastrisse, kus on tüüpilised Eestimaa väikevallad – vähese ja vananeva rahvastikuga ning väikese ettevõtlusega, kuid maaelu arengu indikaatorite järgi paigutub Noarootsi esimesse klastrisse, just oma asukoha ja heaoluindeksi tõttu. Ehk siis see, et inimesed käivad väljaspool valda tööl, teenivad head palka, töötuse arv on väike ja vallal puudub võlakoorem, tõstavad Noarootsi paremate valdade hulka. Noarootsi vald asub Loode-Eestis, Noarootsi poolsaarel, 296 km2 territooriumil. Elanikke on ligikaudu kolm inimest km² kohta ning hetkel on see jätkuvas kahanemistendentsis. Maavaradest leidub Noarootsis liiva, kruusa, turvast, lubjakivi ning kohati ka muda. Peamiselt on tegemist reservvaru või siis planeeritava varuga ehk reaalselt ei saa neid hetkel küll kasutada, kuid majanduslik väärtus neil siiski on. Enamus valla maast on katastris registreeritud: millest 20% moodustab põllumajandusmaa (haritav ja looduslik rohumaa) ja 52,0% metsamaa. Põllumajandus maa pole väga väärtuslik ja vähem kui pool metsamaast kuulub eraomanikele, kes saavad PRIA´lt Natura 2000 erametsatoetust. Valla ühisveevarustus põhineb neljal puurkaevul ja koostatud on riiklikud veemajanduskavad, et saavutada keskkonnaeesmärgid kaitsmaks pinna- ja põhjavett. Elektri varustamine vallas põhineb ühel alajaamal, lisaks kõrval valdade kolm tugijaama. Noarootsis on ka Baltimaade suurim tuulepark, mis on ühendatud ühisvõrku ja mille aastane toodang peaks katma 43 000 keskmise tarbimisega pere aastase tarbimise, mis on valla seisukohalt rohkem kui küllalt. Noarootsi Tuuleenergia MTÜ sõlmis Eesti Energiaga annetuslepingu ja vallaelanikud saavad nüüd endale tuuleenergia tootmisest laekuvast rahast toetusi taotleda. Keskkonnalube pole eriti palju välja antud, kuna Noarootsi vald on väike ja seal tegutsevaid ettevõtteid ning ressursse on vähe. Seetõttu puuduvad ka prügilad ja korraldatud jäätmevedu, kuid on olemas jäätmekeskus ning kevadised ohtlike jäätmete ringiga. Valla territooriumil asub osaliselt neli kaitseala. Riikliku kaitse all on ligi 35% valla territooriumist. Põllumajanduse Registrite ja Informatsiooni Amet (PRIA) loodi 2000. a ja selle peamisteks ülesanneteks on põllumajanduse ja maaelu areng ning andmete kogumine ja analüüs. Noarootsi vallas on PRIA toetusi määratud 2007. aastast ja kõige enam makstud toetuseks on ebasoodsate pindalade toetust, ühtne pindala toetus ja Natura 2000 erametsa toetus, loomulikult on lisaks veel teisigi toetusi, kuid see juba näitab, et kuna tegemist on põllumajanduslikult mitte viljaka maaga ja ka erametsaomanikud vajavad toetust, siis majanduslikult jätkusuutlikkus tuleb vaid läbi abirahade. Lisaks on PRIA´l Leader projekt, et MTÜ´d saaksid külaelu arendada. Juba esimeses peatükis oli juttu Noarootsi võimalustest, millest osade potentsiaali pole veel täies mahus kasutatud. Samuti suureks abiks oleks nö inimeste meelitamiseks projektist „Maale elama“, kus oma eelistega reklaamitakse ennast ning tekib ka parem läbisaamine kogukonnaga. Lisaks veel sotsiaalne ettevõtlus, kus on ühendatud ettevõtlus, kodanike aktivism ja heategevus ning teenitud tulu läheb ühiskonda tagasi. Noarootsi vald on jätkusuutlik looduskasutuses kui ka sotsiaalses mõttes, olles stabiilne, kuid majanduslikult saab veel areneda, eriti turismi suunas.

Abstract [en]

Subject selection was based on the author's involvement in the region and the interest in the topic, as well as its actuality. This paper provides an overview of the use of natural resources and also economy to some extent, pointedly highlighted statistics and issues related to the environment. All the social and cultural characteristics, which also reflects the sustainability are not analyzed - it would not be practical due lack of data and small municipality. Sustainability is an ambiguous theme and it has different branches. The main idea is that to achieve sustainable development for the benefit of the community for the future. Estonia’s rural areas are different, most municipalities are not sustainable, or at least they do not meet the standards outlined in the EMÜ typology. For there would be a development in rural communities, the important factors are in age composition and education, as well as an attractive living environment and whether there are competitive jobs and what kind of services system there are. According to EMÜ typology Noarootsi parish falls in the 4th cluster, which is typical for Estonian small municipalities - low and aging population and small business, but according to the rural development indicators, Noarootsi is positioned in the first cluster, just because of its location and the well-being index. Perhaps it is that people go outside the parish to work, earn a good wage, unemployment is low and the parish has no indebtedness that increases Noarootsi to the number of better parishes. Noarootsi municipality is located in north-west Estonia, in peninsula of Noarootsi and it has territory of 296 km2. Inhabitants of ~ 3 people per km² are currently continuing downwards. Noarootsi mineral resources include sand, gravel, peat, limestone, and in places even mud. Mainly it comes from the reserve margins, or planning margins, realistically it cannot be used at the moment though, but they still have economic value. Most of the land is cadastral registered, of which 20% is agricultural land (arable and grazing), and 52.0% of it is forest land. Agricultural land is not very valuable and less than half of the forest land belongs to private owners who can get PRIA's support for Natura 2000 private forest. Municipality public water supply is based on four wells and national water management plans have been drawn up in order to achieve the environmental objectives for surface and groundwater protection. Electricity supply is based on one substation, in addition to three adjacent base stations in nearby parishes. Noarootsi has the largest wind farm in the Baltic states, that is connected to core network, and which annual output is expected to cover annual consumption of 43,000 family´s average consumption, which is more than enough, from parish point of view. Noarootsi Windpower NPO (Noarootsi Tuuleenergia MTÜ) and Eesti Energia signed a donation agreement and the residents can now apply for grants from the incoming funds of wind energy production. There are not many environmental permits issued in Noarootsi parish, because it is small and there are few companies operating in the resources. Therefore, there are no landfills or organized waste transport, but there is a waste center and in spring hazardous waste round around the municipality. Through the municipality are located four reserves. Under the state protection has almost 35% of the parish territory. Agricultural Registers and Information Board (PRIA) has assigned subsidy to Noarootsi parish since 2007 and the most paid subsidy is on the disadvantaged areas, subsidy for the unitary area payment and the Natura 2000 private forest subsidy, it already shows of agriculturally non- productive land, as well as private forest owners are in need of assistance and the financial sustainability comes through subsidies. In addition PRIA has the Leader project so that NGO´s could promote village life. Already in the first chapter there was written of the Noarootsi opportunities, some of which potential is not yet fully utilized. Also, it would be a great help to attract people with the project "Maale elama", which advertises itself and its benefits, there is also conducted how to obtain a better community. In addition social entrepreneurship, in which is connected business, citizen activism, and charity, and the earned income goes back into society. Noarootsi municipality is sustainable in use of natural and in social terms, being stable, but can still thrive economically, especially towards the tourism.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Andres Tõnisson
Subjects: Technoecology
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Heleri Uusmaa
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2014 08:13
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 08:13
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/553

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