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Eestis müüdavate jahutusvedelike vastavus tehnilistele normidele

Palu, Kaspar (2020) Eestis müüdavate jahutusvedelike vastavus tehnilistele normidele. [thesis] [en] Coolants Sold in Estonia and their Compliance with Technical Standards.

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Abstract

Autor uuris esmalt Eestis tehnikapargi margilist kooslust, et selgitada välja jahutusvedelike margipõhine eripära. Tegi ülevaate jahutussüsteemide ja -vedelike ajaloolisest arengust, et demonstreerida seal toimunud muutusi. Kirjeldas jahutusvedeliku rolli tänapäevastes sõidu- ja töömasinates, nende koostisi ning normatiive ja standardeid. Kuna jahutusvedelike standardid sisaldavad hulga erinevaid teste, mille läbimisega need sobivateks tunnistatakse, siis uuris autor praktilise töö käigus milliseid jahutusvedelikke erinevad kliendisegmendid Eestis kasutatavad ja kas need vedelikud normidele vastavad. Vaatlusandmeid sai kokku 23 ettevõttest erinevatest segmentidest: • 4 veoautode margiesindust • 1 bussiremondiettevõte • 6 sõiduauto margiesindust • 3 sõltumatut remonditöökoda • 2 varuosade kauplust (kuulub suuremasse müügiketti) • 4 tanklat (kuulub suuremasse müügiketti) • 3 supermarketit (kuulub suuremasse müügiketti) Unikaalseid tooteid kokku 67 Samu tooteid üritas töö autor võimalusel vältida. Kuid sageli olid need ainsad erinevas kohas kasutavad tooted, erinevad pakendis või märgistusega. Seetõttu võib olla tabelis mõningal määral samade toodete kattuvust. Hinnanguliselt 75% vedelikest ei vastanud nõuetele. Jahutusvedelike valik ja kasutus autoesindustes on üldjuhul hästi korraldatud. Samas sõltumatutel autoesindustel oli enamikul juhtudel jahutusvedelike kasutuse kohta info jagamine suureks väljakutseks. Lõpuks õnnestus saada vastused vaid üksikust teenindustest. Varuosakauplustes ning jaemüügikohtades aga mõnel juhul usaldusväärset ja kvaliteetset jahutusvedelikku polnudki. Põhjuseks kaheldava sisuga omamärgi toodete müük. Autori üks järeldas on see, et mitmed autotootjad ei anna auto kasutusjuhendiga kaasa selgeid suuniseid järelturul teenindavate autode jahutusvedeliku valikuks, mistõttu jahutusvedelike müüjad ning teenindused ei tea vedelike kohta käivaid nõudeid ega oska kliendile sobivat vedelikku soovitada. Teine probleem on jahutusvedelike müügi killustatus ja jaemüüjate omavaheline konkurents. Varuosamüüjad, tanklaketid ja supermarketid soovivad teenida suuremat kasumit, tellides kontrollimata kvaliteediga omamärgiga jahutusvedelikke tundmatult tootjatelt ja pakendajatelt. Valdav osa kohalikke tootjad või pakendajad segavad jahutusvedelikke teadmata päritolu lisanditest, mida pole keegi testinud, kuid millega antakse kaasa suured lubadused. Nagu Arteco laboris tehtud testid näitasid, võivad ühe märgistusega tooted sageli sisaldada hinda alandavaid külmainete segusid ning lisandite osakaal on tagasihoidlik või lausa puudulik. Samas on ka neid, kellel on usaldusväärsed partnerid ja omavad ka tehnilist tuge Kui turul on tooted sellise ärimudeliga, siis tootja taandub vastutusest ja vastutajaks on müüja. Jaemüüjad aga ei oma teadmisi ega oska (ei soovi) kontrollida toodete tegelikku kvaliteeti. Teadmata jahutusvedelike norme ja autoomanike tegelikke vajadusi, on lettidel tooted äravahetamiseni sarnaste segaste ja vigaste tekstidega. Sageli on jahutusvedeliku valik jaemüügis taandunud primitiivselt värvipõhiseks (roheline, punane, kollane, sinine, lilla) või kasutatakse veidrat laenu Volkswageni jahutusvedelike klassifikatsioonist nagu G11 ja G12, (näiteks Sele 39, Sele 92) tegelikkuses jahutusvedelikele seatud nõudeid eirates. Etikettidel oleva info põhjal võiks mõne tootja arvates piirduda vaid ühe jahutusvedeliku müümisega, kuna väidetakse sobivat see absoluutselt kõikidesse jahutussüsteemidesse (sobib kõikidele…). Mõned tootjad aga on kuhjanud hulga vanu ja ebaolulisi standardeid, mille eesmärk oleks justkui tõestada toote võimekust kasutajate silmis. Mis aga viitab pigem sellele, et tootja ise, veel vähem kasutaja, neist midagi teaks. Sellega varjatakse asjaolu, et vedelikul pole ühegi kajastatud standardi kohta mitte mingisugust tõendusmaterjali. See teadmine paneb toote tegeliku olemasolu tõsise kahtluse alla. Töö autor tuvastas, et paljudel juhtudel pakuti jahutusvedelikku kaasaegsetele mootoritele, kuigi märgistuses viidati eelmisel sajandil kasutuses olnud standarditele (nt. VW TL774D ja G11, G12 ja G48). Samuti märgiti pakenditele samaaegselt omavahel vastuolus olevatele standardid või juhendid (näiteks. G30 jahutusvedelik vastab autovalmistajate nõuetele VW TL774D ja G11, G12 ja G48. Ei sisalda silikaate või MAN 248 / 324 (SNF)). Eriti üllatav oli lugeda etiketilt, et toode vastab autotootja nõudele ja on teada, et tootja kohustab jahutusvedelikus silikaatide kasutamist teatud koguses, kuid müüja väidab, et silikaate vedelik ei sisalda (Ei sisalda nitriteid, amiine, fosfaate, silikaate. Soovituslik vahetada iga viie aasta tagant, vastab VW TL774J (G13) nõuetele.). Ka on sageli pandud ühte ritta nii standardid kui ka konkureeriva toote markeering (VW TL774D ja G11, G12 ja G48, kus G48 ei ole autotootja VW standard, vaid on BASF keemiakontserni hübriidtehnoloogial jahutusvedeliku mark). Interneti kaubandus on kaasa toonud täiesti uue suuna jahutusvedelike müügis. Varuosamüüjatele teenust pakkuv keskkond on sisestanud sinna autode varuosade tootjate originaalvaruosade koodid. Olles ostnud selle platvormi kasutusõiguse, saab müüja siduda oma toote kindla varuosanumbriga, misjärel varuosa otsijale pakutakse automaatselt see varuosaotsingul välja. Nii ongi mõned tootjad hakanud tehniliste standardite asemele märkima toodetele peale lisaks segastele standarditele ka autotootja originaalvaruosade koode (BASF G48, BS 6580, VW G11, TL 774-C ; VW G 001 100, G 011 A8C A1, G 011 V8B A1, G 001 1V8 (A1), MAN 324 NF, MB 325.0, 325.2, MB 000 989 08 25 (S1)). Eraldi tähelepanu tasub juhtida ka vigasele kirjapildile ja teadmata või olematutele standarditele (FFV Heft R443, peaks olema FVV e. Sisepõlemismootorite uurimisühingu jahutusvedelike lisandite uurimisraporti number. ASTM D4985M, kusjuures sellist standardit ei eksisteeri. Jne.). Oleks hea, kui teatakse, mida need tähed ja numbrid tegelikult ka tähendavad. Töö autori eesmärgiks ei olnud uurida toodete hindu ega mahte. Küll aga tundub, et tehniliselt keeruka ja olulise toote müümisel panustatakse kasumi teenimisele paljude autoomanike vara potentsiaalselt kahjustades.

Abstract [en]

The title of this Bachelor’s thesis is „Coolants Sold in Estonia and their Compliance with Technical Standards“ First, the brand composition of the Estonian vehicle fleet was studied in order to find out the brand-specific characteristics of coolants. An overview of the historical developments of cooling systems and coolants was then given to demonstrate the changes that have taken place in the field. The role of coolants in modern driving and work machines, their compositions, norms and standards where thereafter provided. As the standards for coolants include a number of different tests, through which they are recognized as suitable, the selection of coolants used by different customer segments in Estonia and their compliance with the standards were investigated through practical work. A total number of 23 companies observed: • 4 truck dealers • 1 bus service • 6 car dealers • 3 independent car services • 2 spare parts shops (chains) • 4 petrol stations (chains) • 3 supermarkets (chains) Total number of unique products: 67 Covering information about the same products twice or more was avoided as much as possible. Yet, they were often the only products sold in different stores, varying only in terms of packaging or labelling. Therefore, there may still be some overlapping. About 75% of the products did not meet the declared requirements. Nevertheless, the attitude towards check-ups was relatively good among car dealers. However, it was challenging to get any information about cooling fluid selection from independent car services. After several attempts a few replies were received from the specialist of these car services were the coolant selection was well organized. High quality reliable coolants were sometimes completely missing from the spare parts shops and retail stores. The reason is the sale of own-labeled products, that are produced by unknown producers and from unknown components. One of the conclusions that can be made is that many car manufacturers do not provide clear guidelines in their user manual for the selection of coolants for aftermarket cars. Thus, coolant sellers and services do not know the requirements for coolants and cannot recommend a suitable coolant to the customer. Another problem is the fragmentation of coolant sales and competition between retailers. Spare parts stores, petrol stations and supermarket chains want to make more profit by ordering own-labeled coolants with uncontrolled quality from unknown manufacturers and packagers. Most of the domestic producers or packagers make coolants by mixing by mixing additives from unknown sources. These additives have usually not been tested but sellers claim that they serve the purpose well. As it can be seen from the report based on the tests run at Arteco laboratories, products that were claimed to pass OEM’s standards didn’t meet physical parameters and composition requirements. At the same time, there are suppliers who have reliable partners and who also provide sufficient technical support. The situation where retailers order own-labeled coolants from unreliable producers, the manufacturer hands over the responsibility to the retailer. However, retailers do not have the knowledge and do not know how (do not want) to control the actual quality of products. Without knowing the standards of coolants and the real needs of the car owners, there are products on the shelves with copy-pasted faulty labels. Often, the choice of coolant in retail has been reduced to primitive color-based (green, red, yellow, blue, purple) differentiation or on a strange loan from the Volkswagen coolant classification such as G11 and G12, in practice ignoring the requirements for coolants. According to some manufacturers, the sale of coolants could be limited to just one product as the label claims that it is suitable for all cooling systems (suitable for all….). Some manufacturers have instead added a number of old and irrelevant standards on the labels that are trying to prove the product's performance in the eyes of users. However, this refers to the situation that neither the producer nor the customer actually knows the standards. This hides the fact that the coolant has in fact no evidence of any of the reported standards. This knowledge casts serious doubt on the actual existence of the product. The author found that in many cases coolant was offered for modern engines, although the label referred to standards used in the last century (eg VW TL774D and G11, G12 and G48). Conflicting standards or instructions were also found on the packages (eg G30 coolant meets the requirements of car manufacturers VW TL774D and G11, G12 and G48. Does not contain silicates or MAN 248/324 (SNF)). It was particularly surprising to read from the label that the product meets the car manufacturer's requirements and the manufacturer require use a certain amount of silicates in its coolants, but the seller states that the coolant does not contain silicates (Does not contain nitrites, amines, phosphates, silicates. Meets the requirements of VW TL774J (G13)). Both the standards and the labeling of a competing product are also often on the same line (VW TL774D and G11, G12 and G48, where G48 is not the car manufacturer's VW standard, but is a coolant brand of BASF's chemical group hybrid technology). Internet commerce has brought along a whole new direction in the sale of coolants. The web-shop platform offering services for spare parts dealers has added the original spare part codes of car spare parts manufacturers on their site. After purchasing the right to use this platform, the seller can associate his product with a specific spare part number, after which the spare part will be automatically offered to the spare part seeker during the spare parts search. This is how some producers have started to add on the product labels not only technical standards but also the original spare part codes of the car manufacturers (BASF G48, BS 6580, VW G11, TL 774-C; VW G 001 100, G 011 A8C A1, G 011 V8B A1, G 001 1V8 (A1), MAN 324 NF, MB 325.0, 325.2, MB 000 989 0825 (S1)). Special attention should also be paid to incorrect spelling and unknown or non-existent standards (FFV Heft R443, should be FVV as Internal Combustion Engine Research Association coolant additive test report number. ASTM D4985M, with no such standard exist etc.). The aim of the thesis was not to study the prices or volumes of the products. However, it cannot be left unnoticed that by selling technically complex and important products businesses are often looking for ways to grow their own profit while potentially damaging the property of many car owners.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Margus Villau
Subjects: Transport > Automotive engineering > Car construction
Transport > Automotive engineering > Car construction > Car electrical systems
Transport > Automotive engineering > Car construction > Internal combustion engine
Transport > Automotive engineering > Autode hooldus, hooldusjaamad ja seadmed
Divisions: Institute of Engineering > Automotive Engineering
Depositing User: Kaspar Palu
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2020 12:30
Last Modified: 05 Jun 2020 12:30
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/5420

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