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Arhitektuurse mudeli alusel energiatõhususe modelleerimine

Kalja, Kätlin Kristin (2019) Arhitektuurse mudeli alusel energiatõhususe modelleerimine. [thesis] [en] Energy Efficiency Modelling Based on Architectural Model.

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Abstract

Lõputöö peamiseks eesmärgiks on teada saada arhitektide valmisolek teha koostööd energiatõhususe spetsialistidega. Üha enam kasutatakse ehitussektoris BIM modelleerimist, eesmärgiga kogu protsessi kiirendamine ja efektiivistamine ning sellega seoses sooviti teada, milliste puudustega puutuvad energiatõhususe spetsialistid kokku ning kas arhitektid on valmis tegema koostööd. Riigi Kinnisvara AS juhend „Tehnilised nõuded mitteeluhoonetele 2017. Osa 16 – BIM“ on öeldud, et energiaanalüüsi aluseks on arhitektuurne mudel, kust peab pärinema kogu informatsioon ning seal ei tohi esineda ebakõlasid [3]. Eelnevalt toodud juhendmaterjalis on toodud, et lisaks antud juhendile tuleks lähtuda ka COBIM 2012 mudelprojekteerimise üldjuhendist [3]. COBIM 2012 mudelprojekteerimise üldjuhend 2012 näeb samuti ette, et lähtuda tuleks arhitektuursest mudelist [5]. Juhendis on toodud, et energia-analüüsidele esitatavad nõuded on toodud üpris üheselt mõistetavad, kuid sellegipoolest on arhitektide poolt kasutatud modelleerimistarkvarades olnud tõsiseid puudujääke [5]. Eelnevad juhendid ei anna täpseid lahendusi BIM mudeli koostamisel, et energiatõhususe spetsialistid saaksid neid oma töös kasutada. Mudelite kvaliteedi tõstmiseks tuleks luua täiendavad juhendid, mis käsitleks täpsemalt energiaanalüüsideks kasutava BIM mudelile esitatavaid lahendusi. Töö esimene osa keskendub arhitektide valmisolekule teha koostööd energiatõhususe spetsialistidega. Selleks koostati küsimustik, mis sisaldas endas 14 küsimust. Küsimustik edastati Eesti Arhitektide Liidule ning vastuseid tuli kokku 28. Küsimustiku analüüsi põhjal jõuti järeldusele, et arhitektidel on olemas valmisolek koostööks. Uuringus selgus, et 26-l arhitektil on eelnevalt tulnud teha koostööd energiatõhususe spetsialistiga ning sellest tulenevalt uuriti, kas arhitektid soovivad koostöös midagi energiatõhususe spetsialistidega muuta. Eelkõige sooviti, et koostöö algaks juba eskiisi faasis ning sellele järgnes soov, et energiatõhususe spetsialist oskaks mudelit ka iseseisvalt lugeda. Kuna RKAS-i poolt loodud juhendmaterjalides ei ole täpselt toodud, mida peab sisaldama energia-analüüside teostamiseks kasutatav mudel, siis tuleks anda energiatõhususe spetsialistidel selle kohane teave arhitektidele. Sellega seoses tekkis lõputöö autoril KOKKUVÕTE 50 küsimus, kas arhitekt peaks koostama mudeli sellises kvaliteedi astmes, et energiatõhususe spetsialist saaks seda koheselt kasutada või peaks teatud osa tegema energiatõhususe spetsialist. Töö teises osas viiakse läbi arhitektuurse mudeli importimine tarkvarasse IDA ICE, et teada saada milliseid puudusi tekib IFC sissetoomisel energiasimulatsiooni programmi. Esialgu saadakse arhitektilt IFC, mille sissetoomisel IDA ICE tarkvarasse ilmneb palju puudusi ning avatäited ei tule üle. Probleemist antakse arhitektile teada ning koostöös eksporditakse läbi ArchiCad translaatorite uus IFC, mis avaneb IDA ICE keskkonnas. Saadud IFC on tunduvalt parema kvaliteediga ning sisaldab endas energiatõhususe spetsialistile juba rohkem vajalikke parameetreid. Siiski esineb mudelis veel puudulikke elemente, mis vajaksid ülevaatamist ning vajalike lahenduste loomist. Sellest lähtuvalt tuleks välja töötada eraldi Eesti sisene translaator IFC eksportimiseks, mis on mõeldud energia-analüüside teostamiseks. Selle loomiseks tuleks eelnevalt koostada vähemalt üks pilootprojekt, kuhu oleks kaasatud nii arhitekt, energiatõhususe spetsialist, RKAS, andmetöötlus spetsialist ja õppeasutus. Kokkuvõttes on arhitektide poolt olemas valmisolek teha koostööd energiatõhususe spetsialistidega, kuid see eeldab pidevat omavahelist suhtlust juba eskiisi faasist alates ning täpseid ootusi energiasimulatsioonide läbiviimiseks vastavates tarkvarades. Lisaks ei pruugi mudel ka seejärel probleemideta käivituda ning eeldab energiatõhususe spetsialisti poolt omapoolset mudeli parandust.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this graduation thesis Energy Efficiency Modelling Based on Architectural Model is to find out the readiness among architects to cooperate with energy efficiency specialists. More and more BIM modelling is being used in the construction sector with the aim to speed up the process and make it more effective and in connection with that find out which kind of disadvantages energy efficiency specialists have to face and whether architects are willing to cooperate. The guidelines of Riigi Kinnisvara AS “Technical requirements to non-residential buildings 2017. Part 16 – BIM” state that the basis of energy analysis is an architectural model from which all information is proceeding and it must not comprise non-compliance [3]. The above-mentioned guidelines state that in addition to the given guidelines also general guidelines of model drafting COBIM 2012 should be followed [3]. The general model drafting guideline COBIM 2012 also foresees that the architectural model should be followed [5]. The guidelines state that the requirements established to the energy analysis are rather unambiguous but nevertheless rather serious errors have been in modelling softwares used by architects [5]. Previous guidelines do not give precise solutions for the preparation of the BIM model so that energy efficiency specialists could use them in their work. In order to increase the quality of the model, additional guidelines should be prepared, which would handle more precisely the solutions of BIM models used in energy analysis. The second part of the paper focuses on the architects’ readiness to cooperate with energy efficiency specialists. For that purpose, a questionnaire was prepared including 14 questions. The questionnaire was sent to the Association of Estonian Architects and 28 responses were received. Based on the analysis of the questionnaire the conclusion was reached that architects are ready to cooperate. It appeared in the survey that 26 architects had previously cooperated with energy efficiency specialists and based on that it was studied whether the architects want to change anything in the cooperation with the energy efficiency specialists. Primarily they wished that cooperation would start already in the draft stage and then it was suggested that the energy efficiency specialist could read the model independently. As the guidelines by RKAS do not precisely state what the used model should contain for the performance of energy analysis, the SUMMARY 52 corresponding information should be given to the architects by the energy efficiency specialists. In connection with that the author of the final paper asks the questions: whether an architect should prepare the model in such a quality level that the energy efficiency specialist could instantly use it, or the energy efficiency specialist should prepare a certain part of it. In the second part of the paper the architectural model is imported into IDA ICE software to find out which kind of disadvantages are generated upon importing IFC into the energy simulation program. At first the IFC is received from the architect after which several disadvantages occurred in the software upon the transportation of IDA ICE software and opening fillers are not transferred. The architect is informed of the problem and in cooperation a new IFC is exported via ArchiCad translators, which open in the IDA ICE environment. The received IFC is of much better quality and comprises more parameters required by the energy efficiency specialists. However, the model still contains faulty elements that require reviewing and the creation of new solutions. Based on that, a separate internal translator for the export of IFC in Estonia should be developed specially for the performance of efficiency analysis. For its creation at least one pilot project should be prepared, including an architect, an energy efficiency specialist, RKAS, a data processing specialist and an educational establishment. In conclusion, architects are ready to cooperate with energy efficiency specialists, but it assumes constant mutual communication already in the draft stage and precise expectations for the performance of energy simulations in the corresponding software. However, the model might not be launched without problems even then and assumes that the energy efficiency specialist would improve the model on his behalf.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Anti Hamburg
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Building construction and design > Modelling of construction information (BIM)
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Kätlin Kristin Kalja
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2019 06:42
Last Modified: 05 Jun 2019 06:42
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4523

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