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Ungrumetsa Kool erivajadustega lastele

Lao, Mari-Leen (2019) Ungrumetsa Kool erivajadustega lastele. [thesis] [en] Ungrumetsa School for Children with Special Needs.

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Abstract

Käesolev lõputöö „Ungrumetsa kool erivajadustega lastele“ käsitleb erivajadustega laste sihtgrupile hoonete projekteerimise eripärasid ja nende teadmiste põhjal uue koolihoone projekteerimist. Erivajadustega lastele mõeldud koolis on oluline tagada lastele nii füüsiliselt kui emotsionaalselt turvaline keskkond. Värvipsühholoogia põhimõtete ja spetsiifiliste ruumilahenduste rakendamine ning loodusläheduse kaasamine puuetega lastele koolikeskkonna loomisel ja koolihoone projekteerimisel on väga oluline. Värvide valik on sisearhitektuurses lahenduses otseselt seotud mõjuga inimese emotsionaalsele seisundile. Enim positiivseid emotsioone loovad sinine ja roheline ning nende värvide mõju põhjendatakse nende sarnasusega looduses eksisteerivate värvidega. Läbimõeldud värvi-ja materjalilahendustega siseruumid loovad lastele toetava ja õppimist soodustava keskkonna. Samuti mängib erivajadustega lastele toetava keskkonna loomisel suurt rolli looduse lähedus. Looduses viibimine ning aktiivsed tegevused õues suurendavad oluliselt erivajadustega laste sotsiaalsust. Puuetega lastel tõuseb looduses olles positiivsete emotsioonide hulk, paraneb kõneosavus, suhtlemisoskus, kognitiivsed oskused, käitumine ning nad suudavad paremini toime tulla mistahes muutustega ümbritsevas. Lõputöö raames Eesti puuetega laste koolides läbiviidud küsitluse eesmärk oli kaardistada õppehoonete peamised probleemid ning laste reaalsed vajadused ruumide osas. Küsitluse käigus selgus, et enamik koolihooned ei ole algselt projekteeritud mõeldes erivajadustega laste vajadustele ning koolihooneteks muutumisel aset leidnud ümberehitused ei ole alati rahuldavad. Ruumide osas tuntakse peamiselt puudust panipaikadest ja laoruumidest, teraapiaruumidest, eraldusruumidest, tugispetsialistide ruumidest ning eraldiseisvast spordisaalist ning riietus- ja pesuruumidest. Samuti toodi esile puudulikud tehnilised lahendused tualettruumides ning automaatsete uste ja vajalike liftide puudumine. Kooli asukoha puhul eelistati logistiliselt head asukohta, mis asuks suurematest sõiduteedest eemal ning oleks looduslähedases kohas. See võimaldaks loomi kaasavate tegevuste elluviimist kooliterritooriumil. Käesoleva lõputöö raames projekteeritud uues Ungrumetsa koolihoones on ära lahendatud kõik küsitluses välja toodud murekohad. Koolihoone on paigutatud Haapsalu linna äärde, suurtest sõiduteedest eemale, keset loodusrikast keskkonda. Hoonesse on paigutatud rohkelt laoruume, loodud spordi- ja teraapiakompleks ning ujula koos riietus-ja pesuruumidega. Samuti on loodud hoonesse individuaalõpperuumid/eraldusruumid, rahunemise- ja iseolemiseruum. Hoone välisuksed on automaatselt avanevad ning ühetasandilise koolihoone lahendusega on välditud liftivajadust. Hoone sisearhitektuurne lahendus toetub värvipsühholoogiale ning erivajadustega laste vajadusi arvestavatele uuringutele. Loodusläheduse suurendamiseks omab hoone mitmeid siseõuesid ning loomateraapia hoovi. Eripäraste sise- ja välislahenduste toel suudab uus koolihoone pakkuda lastele emotsionaalset tuge, võimalust eralduda, looduslikku keskkonda, loomi kaasavaid tegevusi, erinevaid teraapiavõimalusi ning õppimisprotsessi soodustavat keskkonda. Erivajadustega inimeste vajaduste tundmine ja nendega arvestamine on arhitektuuri ja ehitusmaailmas väga oluline. Tundes hästi puuetega lapsi ja nende erisusi, on võimalik luua neile toetav, turvaline keskkond, mis toetab nende toimetulekut. Ungrumetsa kooli projekt vastab igakülgselt puuetega laste vajadustele ning riiklikele nõuetele, mis käsitlevad puuetega inimestele hoonete projekteerimisnõudeid.

Abstract [en]

The present final thesis Ungrumetsa school for children with special needs focuses on the specifics of designing buildings for the target group of children with special needs and designing a school building by relying on this knowledge. It is important to ensure a physically and emotionally secure environment in a school for children with special needs. Implementing the principles of colour psychology and specific room solutions as well as incorporating closeness with nature is very important when it comes to creating a school environment for disabled children and designing such a school house. The choice of colours in interior architecture is directly connected to the impact of colours on a person’s emotional state of mind. Blue and green bring forward most positive emotions and such impact of those colours is explained through their similarity with colours existing in nature. Well-considered colour and material solutions ensure that children are in a supportive environment that also endorses learning. In addition to that, a sense of closeness to nature is an important factor in building a supportive environment for children. Being in nature and outdoor activities considerably increase the sociality of disabled children. When disabled children are in nature, they experience an increase of positive emotions, and an improvement of their speech, communicative skills, cognitive skills, behaviour and they are able to cope better with all kinds of changes occurring in their immediate surroundings. A survey was carried out in schools for disabled children within the framework of this thesis. The aim of the survey was to map the main problems with school buildings and determine the children’s real needs regarding rooms. The survey revealed that majority of the school buildings were not originally designed keeping in mind the needs of disabled children and the alterations made to buildings once they became schools have not always proved satisfactory. The main rooms that are lacking include storage spaces and storehouses, therapy rooms, separation rooms, rooms for the support personnel and separate sports facilities with the accompanying changing rooms and showers. The respondents also highlighted poor technical solutions in toilets and the lack of automatic doors and necessary elevators. As to the location of the building, the respondents preferred a logistically favourable location away from major roads but in proximity to nature. This would allow to practice activities involving animals on the school territory. The new Ungrumentsa school building designed within the scope of this thesis provides solutions to all the issues that surfaced in the survey. The building is located at the edge of the town of Haapsalu, away from major roads and surrounded by nature. The building incorporates a number of storage spaces, a sports and therapy complex as well as a swimming pool with changing rooms and shower rooms. Moreover, the design of the building accommodates individual learning rooms/separation rooms, as well as calming rooms and seclusion rooms. The doors of the building leading outside are opened automatically and the need for an elevator has been eliminated as the building spreads across a single floor. The internal architecture of the building relies on colour psychology and studies that address the needs of disabled children. There are several inner courtyards and animal therapy spaces. Owing to its specific internal and outside solutions the building is capable of providing the children emotional support, the possibility of being on one’s own, a natural environment, activities including animals, different options for therapy and an environment that promotes the learning process. Recognising and considering the needs of people with special needs is essential in the world of architecture and construction. Being familiar with disabled children and the specifics of their needs, it is possible to create a supportive and safe environment that supports their coping. The design of Ungrumetsa school complies with the needs of disabled children and the national requirements dealing with designing buildings for disabled people in all regards.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Kaur Talpsep
Co-advisor: Tomomi Hayashi
Subjects: Architecture > Applied Architecture > Architectural Design
Architecture > Applied Architecture > Typology of Buildings
Architecture > Applied Architecture > Interiors
Divisions: Institute of Architecture > Applied Architecture
Depositing User: Mari-Leen Lao
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2019 12:42
Last Modified: 26 Aug 2019 08:37
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4521

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