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Autonoomse mobiilse roboti tasuvusarvutus ettevõtte Scanfil OÜ näitel.

Jaanoja, Siim (2019) Autonoomse mobiilse roboti tasuvusarvutus ettevõtte Scanfil OÜ näitel. [thesis] [en] Autonomous Mobile Robot Cost-benefit Analysis Based on Scanfil OÜ..

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Abstract

Käesoleva lõputöö eesmärgiks oli analüüsida autonoomse mobiilse roboti kuluefektiivsust ja rakendamise võimalusi ettevõtte Scanfil OÜ näitel. Autonoomsete robotite kasutamine tootmises on lähiaastatel hüppeliselt kasvanud ja järjest enam ettevõtteid uurib, kuidas neil on võimalik oma protsesse robotitega liita ja seeläbi suunata inimesi väärtust lisavatele operatsioonidele. Rutiinsete ja füüsiliste tööde hulga vähendamiseks on võimalik kasutada transpordiroboteid. Seoses jätkuva tööjõukulude suurenemise ja korduvate monotoonsete tööde minimeerimiseks uuritakse võimalusi tööde automatiseerimisel ettevõttes globaalselt ja esimesed robotid on juba rakendatud töösse Rootsi ja Poola tehases. Lõputöö põhiosa koosneb viiest peatükist. Esimeses peatükis tutvustati Scanfil Pärnu tehase rolli suuremas kontserni ettevõttes. Pärnu tehasesse suunataksse tooted, millel on madal nõudlus, aga suur nomenklatuur. Pidev toodete muutus nõuab sagedat liinide optimeerimist ja tehas on pidevas muutuses. Teises peatükis teostati andmete analüüs. Andmete analüüsiks koguti andmeid tootmispõrandal ja ERP programmist. Test teostati tootmispõrandal kahel vabalt valitud kuupäeval ja andmeid võrreldi eelmise aasta ERP programmi tulemustega. Testi tulemus klappis eelmise aasta andmetega ja tulemuseks saadi keskmiselt 29 töökäsku ühe vahetuse kohta. Aastas kulub materjalide veoks 645 töötundi, mis kilomeetritesse ümber kalkuleerides teeb 1936 kilomeetrit. Roboti võimekus on aastas 10 120 km ja leiti, et mehaanikaosakonnas pole piisavalt tööd robotile pakkuda. Üheks põhjuseks tuvastati kvaliteedikontrolli asukoht mehaanika osakonna ja koosteliinide vahel. Asukoht on eraldiseisev ja see ei luba tooteid transportida kohe sihtkohta. Autor on välja pakkunud ka idee liita visuaalkontroll mehaanika protsessidega, et saaks teostada kontrolli koheselt liinidel. Lisa koormuse leidmiseks uuriti ostumaterjalide vedu. ERP andmete põhjal teostati 2018. aastal 99 018 kannet. Süsteemi andmete põhjal ei suudetud tuvastada palju materjale ühele kärule ladustatakse, selle tuvastamiseks vaadeldi käru liikumist tootmispõrandal ühe nädala jooksul. Keskmiseks tulemuseks saadi, et käru liigub keskmiselt päevas 26 korda ja keskmiselt ladustatakse ühele kärule 15 erinevat materjali. Sellest järeldas lõputöö autor, et materjalide komplekteerimine pole ettevõttes standardiseeritud ja on oht lisa kvaliteediriskideks, sest tuvastati olukorrad, kui materjale viidi liinidele rohkem, kui süsteem näitas vajadusi. Kolmandas osas analüüsiti tehase laomajandust. Töö koostamise käigus uuriti kahte stsenaariumit, milles üks keskendus pooltoodete sisetranspordile ja teine ostumaterjalide ringlusele tehases. Kirjeldati tänast olukorda tootmises ja otsiti raiskamisi. Töö autor leidis, et LEAN põhimõtteid järgides on võimalik liikuda ühe tüki voo poole, kus tootmisprotsessid on omavahel nii lähedal, et neid ei tule vahepeal ladustada ja seeläbi väheneb toodete mitmekordne käsitlemine. Neljanda peatükis tutvuti autonoomsete robotite ajalooga. Võrreldi erinevaid autonoomseid roboteid. Uuriti robotite ohutust ja teostati sobiliku roboti valik. Robotite võrdluses oli üksteist erinevat tootjat uurimise all. Ohutustegurite all kontrolliti tootjatele esitatavaid nõudeid ja uuriti robotitega seotud õnnetusi. Pöörati tähelepanu ka tehases põrandate olukorrale. Üheks põhjuseks oli veenduda, et põrandad on robotite tööks vastavuses. Üldine põrandate olukord on tehases hea, küll aga vajab parandamist tootmishallide liitekohad, mis lisaks robotite tööle pidurdab ka täna majas töötavate operaatorite tööeffektiivsust, sest liitekohas tuleb koormat vedades aeglustada. Robotite valikul lähtuti ettevõtte nõudmistest. Robot pidi vastama ESD nõudmistele ja tehase pideva liinide ümberkoraaldamise tõttu peab ise takistustest suutma ümber põigata. Arvestades eelpoolnimetatud nõudmisi valiti kaks autonoomset robotit. Viiendas peatükis teostati majandusarvutused. Eelmise aasta andmete põhjal teostati tasuvus analüüs, leidmaks kas roboti rakendamine on tasuv ja kas seadme implementeerimise järel on suuteline asendama töölist. Tasuvusanalüüsist peegeldus tõsiasi, et ilma töömeetodeid muutmata on roboti eluiga lühem, kui tasuvusaeg mehaanika osakonnas. Tasuvusajaks kujunes 12 aastat. Ostumaterjalide veo puhul arvutati tasuvusajaks neli aastat ja implementeerimise tulemus parandaks ka töötamise effektiivsust, sest materjalide käru oleks võimalik liinidel kasutada. Lõputöö autor leidis, et lisades rohkem osakondi roboti tööpiirkonda vähendaks roboti tasuvusaega tunduvalt. Käesolevas töös leidis töö autor, et robot on suuteline asendama töölisi ja neid on võimalik suunata väärtust lisavatele operatsioonidele. Tasuvusaja lühendamiseks tuleks roboti tööpiirkonda liita juurde teised osakonnad. Teiste osakondade laokandeid antud töös ei analüüsitud ja neid tuleks enne investeeringu tegemist veel uurida.

Abstract [en]

The following graduation thesis Autonomous Mobile Robot Cost-benefit Analysis Based on Scanfil OÜ was focusing to analyse mobile robots cost-benefit and chances to implement new technology into excisting processes. The use of autonomous robots in production has grown exponentially during last years and more and more companies are exploring how they can integrate their processes with robots and to move people to value-adding operations. Transport robots can be used to reduce the amount of routine and physical work. In order to minimize the continuing increase of labor costs and repetitive monotonous work, opportunities are being explored to implement automated work in a company globally and the first robots have already been deployed to work in the Swedish and Polish plants. The main part of the thesis consists of five chapters. In the first chapter Pärnu factory role is introduced as a part in global Scanfil Group factories. Products with low demand but high mix would be directed to the Pärnu factory. Constant product change requires frequent line optimization and the factory is in constant change. Data analysis was performed in the second chapter. Information was collected on the production floor and from the ERP program for data analysis. The test was performed on the production floor at two freely chosen dates and compared with the results of the previous year's ERP program. The test results matched last year's data and resulted in an average of 29 job orders per shift. It takes 645 hours per year to transport materials, which makes around 1 936 kilometers. The robot's capacity is 10 120 km per year and it was found that there is not enough work for the robot in the mechanics department. One reason was the location of the quality control between the mechanics department and the assembly lines. The location is separate and does not allow the products to be transported immediately to the destination. The author has also proposed the idea of combining visual inspection with mechanics processes so that controls can be performed immediately on lines. In order to find an additional load, the transportation of the purchase materials was examined. Based on ERP data, 99 018 entries were made in 2018. Based on system data, different material quantities stored on a single trolley could not be detected. Trolleys movement on the production floor was observed for one week. The average result was that the trolley travels on average 26 times a day and on average 15 different materials are stored on one trolley. The author of the thesis concluded that material transport was not standardized in the company and there is a chance of additional quality risks because situations were detected when materials were transferred to lines more than the system showed needs. The third part analyzed factory warehouse management. In the course of the work, two scenarios were examined in which one focused on the internal transport of semi-finished products and the other on the circulation of purchasing materials inside the factory. The current situation in production was described and wastefulness was sought. The author of the thesis found that following the principles of LEAN, it is possible to move towards a single stream, where the production processes are so close that they do not have to be stored in the meantime and thus reduce the multiple handling of the products. The fourth chapter explores the history of autonomous robots. Different autonomous robots were compared. Robot safety was investigated and a suitable robot was selected. There were eleven different manufacturers in the comparison of robots under investigation. The safety factors were used to check the requirements for manufacturers and to investigate robotic accidents. Attention was also paid to the condition of the floors in the factory. One of the reasons was to make sure that the floors are in line with the robots requirements. The general condition of the floors in the factory is good, but there is a need to improve the joints between production halls, which in addition to the work of robots also hinders the operational efficiency of the operators working in the house today, because the load at the junction must be slowed down while carrying the load. The choice of robots was based on the company's demand. The robot had to meet the requirements of the ESD and due to the constant re-routing of the lines, it must be able to overcome the obstacles itself. Considering the above-mentioned demands, two autonomous robots were selected. In the fifth chapter economic calculations were carried out. On the basis of the previous year data, the profitability analysis was performed to find out whether the application of the robot is cost effective and whether it is able to replace the worker after the implementation of the device. The cost-benefit analysis reflected the fact that, without changing working methods, the robot's life span is shorter than the payback time in the mechanics department. The payback period was 12 years. In the case of shipment of materials, the payback period was calculated to be four years and the result of the implementation would also improve the efficiency of the work, because the trolley of materials could be used on the lines. The author of the thesis found that adding more departments to the robot's work area would significantly reduce the payback time of the robot. In this work, the author of the thesis found that the robot is capable of replacing workers and they can be directed to value-adding operations. To reduce the payback time, other departments should be added to the robot's work area. Other departments transportation needs were not analyzed in this work and should be additionally investigated before the investment.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Gerth Kivima
Co-advisor: Marek Pakkin
Subjects: Mechanical Engineering > Production Engineering and Technology > Automation Technology and Numerical Control Systems
Mechanical Engineering > Production Engineering and Technology
Divisions: Institute of Engineering > Machine Building
Depositing User: Siim Jaanoja
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2019 06:17
Last Modified: 06 Jun 2019 06:17
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4391

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