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Reoveesette käitlus Eestis

Hanni, Kertu (2019) Reoveesette käitlus Eestis. [thesis] [en] Sewage Sludge Management in Estonia.

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Abstract

Töö alustamisel sai püstitatud järgmised ülesanded: • uurida mis on reoveesete ja millised on selle erinevad käitlustehnoloogiad? • teha selgeks Eesti Vabariigis kehtiva seadusandluse nõuded reoveesette käitlemisele ning selle valmistatud komposti kui toote sertifitseerimisele; • uurida, mis on sertifitseerimiseprotsessi nõuded sertifitseerimisasutusele ja vee-ettevõttele? • uurida, miks vee-ettevõtted ei soovi omatoodetud reoveesette komposti sertifitseerida tootena? Reoveesette käitlustehnoloogiate puhul sai analüüsitud erinevate tehnoloogiate eeliseid ja puudusi ja nende kasutamist Eestis. Enim levinud on aunkompostimine, mis on küll kõige soodsam, kuid samas on ka selle kvaliteet kõige enam mõjutatav ilmastikust. Suuremad reoveepuhastid kasutavad ka anaeroobset reoveesette töötlemist. Et reoveesete sisaldab patogeene ja ohtlikke aineid on sette käitlemine seadustega väga reguleeritud. Töö tegemise ajal tutvus autor kehtivate reoveesette käitlemist reguleerivate õigusaktidega ning töös analüüsiti nendes toodud nõudeid. Tuli nentida, et lõpptoote kvaliteedinõuded erinevatest lähtematerjalidest valmistatud kompostidele on millegipärast erinevad. Töö autori arvates võiks seadusandja need nõuded üle vaadata ja võimaluse korral ühtlustada. Reoveesettest valmistatud komposti kui toodet on võimalik müüa kui see vastab Keskkonnaministri määruse nr 24 "Reoveesettest toote valmistamise nõuded" toodud ohutusnõuete ja kvaliteedi piirväärtustele. Toote sertifikaadi saamiseks tuleb läbi teha taotlejal sertifitseerimisprotsess. Üks töö eesmärkidest oli teada saada, miks vee-ettevõtted ei soovi sertifitseerida reoveesettest valmistatud komposti tootena? Vastuse saamiseks sai läbiviidud vee-ettevõtete seas vastav küsitlus. Küsitlusele vastas 44-st vee-ettevõttest 13. Kuigi vähese vastajate arvu pärast ei saa läbiviidud küsitluse tulemusi kogu Eestile taandada ja teha vastavaid järeldusi, saab öelda, et sertifitseerimine on ettevõtetele probleemiks. Neil puuduvad teadmised sertifitseerimise protsessist, peavad seda liiga keeruliseks ja kalliks. Ei olda ka kindlad, kas sertifitseerimine aitab kaasa reoveesettest komposti turustamisele. Vastustest selgus, et see on vee-ettevõtete enda tekitatud probleem, kuna neil ei ole aega või soovi käia infopäevadel ning ka iseseisvalt informatsiooni hankida. Seega paistab, et vee-ettevõtetel puudub motivatsioon reoveesette komposti tootena sertifitseerida. Töö läbiviimine andis autorile uusi teadmisi ning avardas silmaringi reoveesette käitlemisest Eestis.

Abstract [en]

In the beginning of the work the following aims were set: • to explore what is a sewage sludge and what are the sewage sludge treatment technologies; • to clarify the requirements of the Republic of Estonia for the sewage sludge treatment and certification of the sewage sludge based compost as a product; • investigate the requirements of the certification process for an accredited registrar and for the water company; • investigate, why water companies do not want to certify the compost produced based on their sewage sludge as a product; With regard to sewage sludge treatment, there were analyzed advantages and disadvantages of different methods. The most widespread is aerated static pile composting, that is also the most favorable, however, it is very sensitive to the weather. Huge wastewater treatment plants are also using anaerobic sludge digestion method. As the sewage sludge contains pathogens and infectious substances, the treatment of it is highly regulated by law. At the time of the work, the author studied the current legislation of the sewage sludge treatment and the author analyzed the requirements they contain. It should be noted that the quality requirements for the final compost produced from different materials are somewhat different. According to the author of this work, the legislator could review all these requirements and, if possible, unify them. It is possible to sell compost produced from sewage sludge, if it complies with safety requirements and quality standards described in Regulation No 24 "Requirements for the production of sewage sludge" from the Minister of the Environment. In order to obtain a product certificate, the applicant must undergo a certification process. One of the aims of this work is to find out, why the water companies do not want to certify compost produced from sewage sludge as a product. In order to get the answer, a survey was conducted among the water companies. 13 out of 44 water companies responded to the survey. Due to the low number of respondents, the results of the survey cannot be applied to Estonia and it is impossible to make corresponding conclusions. However, it is evident, that the certification is a problem for companies. The have lack of knowledge about certification process and consider it too expensive and complicated. They are also not certain, whether it will help the marketing process of sewage sludge compost. It turned out that this is a problem created by the water companies, as they do not have the time or wish to visit the information day or to obtain information independently. Thus, water companies seem to have no incentive to certify sewage sludge compost as a product. While writing this work, the author has widened his horizons and expanded his knowledge of sewage sludge handling in Estonia.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Laura Grünverk
Subjects: Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Introduction to Environmental Protection
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Kertu Hanni
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2019 13:09
Last Modified: 26 Aug 2019 12:12
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4371

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