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Vedurijuhi nähtavuse parendamine pimeda ajal Stadler FLIRT rongide näitel

Kolli, Madis (2019) Vedurijuhi nähtavuse parendamine pimeda ajal Stadler FLIRT rongide näitel. [thesis] [en] Improving the train driver's vision during the dark based on Stadler Flirt trains.

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Abstract

Rongijuhi töö koosneb erinevatest etappidest, milleks põhilisemaid on reisirongi liinil teenindamine ja ohutu reisijate punktist A punkti B toimetamine. Selleks, et reisijad jõuaksid sihtkohtadesse turvaliselt ja rahulolevalt, peab raudteeveeremi juht olema pädev enda töös. Peale pädevuse on oluline tööandja poolt tagada töötajatele töötingimused, mille abil pakkuda esmaklassilist teenust, rõhudes peamiselt ohutusele. Siinkohal tuleb eristada reaalset ohutust ja tuntavat ohutust. Kui rongijuht ei tunne töötades pimeda ajal ohutult, siis reisijad sellest aru ei saa kuna puudub otsene kontakt reisija ja rongijuhi vahel. Iga olukord sisaldab endas mõningaid probleeme, väljakutseid ja muresid. Vahel ei paista sellele lahendust leiduvat kuid siiski on tavaliselt lahendus lihtsam kui alguses tundub. Tuleb alustada probleemi tunnistamisest, see kuuldavaks teha ja hakata lahendust otsima. Raudteel on populaarne kolleegidega erinevaid tööalaseid probleeme lahata riietusruumides, mis tavaliselt sinna ka jäävad. Töö autori küsitlusest selgusid mõningased probleemid seoses rongide välivalgustusega ja raudteeveeremi juhtide tervisega. Uue rongi (Stadler FLIRT) ja vanade rongide (DR1B, DR1A ja ER2) välivalgustuse võrdluses esitati vanu ronge paremas valguses. Üheks põhjuseks võib lugeda valgusvoo vihku, mis oli suunatud raudteele, mitte ei hajunud kaugustesse. Üheks halogeeni tunnuseks on valguse hajumine kuid eelnevate reisirongidega sai prožektori valgust käsitsi reguleerida ja läätsega vastavalt vajadusele suunata. Hävitav hinnang anti Stadler FLIRT reisirongide prožektorile, kus 5-palli süsteemis hinnati antud näitaja 2,5 pallile. Nägemisprille kirjutati välja 64% vastanutest lähima 5-aasta jooksul, mille põhjusteks arvati olevat vanus, monitoride valguse kiirgus, haigus, ja rongide välivalgustitest põhjustatud nägemise halvenemine. Pimeda ajal sõitmisel toodi välja häirivad tegurid, millest suurim osakaal oli silmade väsimusel, mille põhjuseks võib olla halb valgustatus ja monitoride kiirgav valgus. Lisaks mainiti ära halb valgustatus, kliima, udu ja vihma korral sõitmine, vaimne väsimus ja halvad kojamehed. 15 % vastanutest puudusid häirivad tegurid, kes olid pigem nooremad raudteeveeremi juhid. Rongi juhtkabiini installeeritud monitorid on absoluutselt vaimustav areng tehnikamaailmas, kuid siiski ei ole areng jõudnud nii kaugele, et oleks võimalik ekraanide heledust reguleerida kasutajasõbralikuks. Süsteemi haldaja poolt pakutav ekraaniheleduse muutmine ületab hinna suhtes normaalsuse piiri, mille tõttu on kasutaja ehk Elron sunnitud pakkumise tagasi lükkama. Kannatajateks antud situatsioonis on rongijuhid, kes on sunnitud antud tingimustes töötama. Ajutiseks lahenduseks sobib toonkilede asetamine ekraanile, et vältida kiirgavat valgust, mis segab keskendumist ja häirib nägemist pimeda ajal. Hinna suhtes on see kõige soodsam kuid lõikamine ja lamineerimine töömahukas protsess. Toonkilede lahendus ei saa olla alaline, sest lõpuks on see tüütu ja kilplaslik. Stadler FLIRT reisirongid on mõeldud teenindama linnalähi- ja regionaalliine. Sellest tulenevalt on lähtutud ka rongi ehitusel, reisijatele mõeldud istmed on ebamugavad ja püstises asendis. Lisaks sellele pole suuremat rõhku pandud rongide välivalgustitele, mille nähtavus on naeruväärselt väike. Kuigi tegu on lisaks linnalähirongile regionaalrongiga, siis ei kajastu see üheski tehnilises näitajas, välja arvatud diiselrongides platseeruvas esimeses klassis, kus on kasutusel pehmemad, minimaalselt reguleeritavad istmed. Tehnika areng on kaasa toonud ka selle odavnemise, LED tehnoloogia hinnaklass on kõrgem kui halogeen. Siiski võime väita, et leedlamp on tunduvalt kättesaadavam kui 10-aastat tagasi. Stadler FLIRT reisirongide välivalgustid on komplekteeritud tehases standard DIN- EN 15153-1 järgi, mille tõttu puudub, ettevõttel Elron, antud standard rongide välivalgustuse kohta. Järelikult pole alusdokumenti, mille abil kontrollida välivalgustuse hetkelist vastavust standardile. Siinkohal saame juhinduda Euroopa Liidu raudteesüsteemi veeremi allsüsteemi „vedurid ja reisijateveoveerem” koostalitluse tehnilise kirjelduse järgi, kus pole määratud valgustugevust ega tooni. Välivalgustites pirnide vahetamine tundus esialgu lihtne töö, kuid töö käigus ilmnesid järgmised probleemid: 1) Rongide tehniline sobivus LED-pirnidega 2) Voolutolerantsi erinevus LED ja halogeenpirnide vahel, kas rongi juhtsüsteem registreerib LED-pirni läbipõlemise? 3) LED-pirni võimsusest tulenev ülekuumenemine, kas LED-mooduli jahutus töötab kooskõlas rongi juhtseadmega? 4) Alumise lähi- ja kaugtule välivalgusti sokli ehk pirnipesa sobivus 5) Ettevõtte tahe olukorda parandada Vedurijuhtide nähtavuse parendamiseks pimeda ajal tuleb alustada väikestest asjadest, mis võivad oluliselt mõjutada rongijuhi tööd. Esmakordselt 5-aasta jooksul on alustatud ja katsetatud välivalgusti siseklaaside puhastust, mille on sinna tekitanud tolm ja kliimast tingitud tahm. Lisaks sellele on arendusjärgus toonkilede kasutusse võtmine, mida alustati 2-aastat tagasi, kuid siiamaani pole töösse rakendatud. Välivalgustite osas on katsetatud võimsamaid halogeenpirne, kuid tulemusteta. Siiski saame väita, et probleemiga tegeletakse, kuid märkimisväärset tulemust pole saavutatud. Lõpuks kannatavad raudteeveeremi juhid, kes antud töötingimustes peavad töötama ja rikkuma sellega oma silmanägemist, mis selgus läbi viidud küsitlusest. Stadler FLIRT tüüpi rongide pidurdusefektiivsus on võrreldes vanade rongidega tunduvalt parem ja valge ajal on säästnud rohkelt inimeste elusid. Kuid pimeda ajal piduriefektiivsuse kasutegur on 0, kui nähtavust piirab ebaefektiivne välivalgustus.

Abstract [en]

The work of the train driver consists of different stages, the main ones being the servicing of the passenger train on the line and the safe transport of passengers from point A to point B. In order for passengers to reach their destinations safely and satisfactorily, the driver of the rolling stock must be competent in his own work. Apart from competence, it is important for the employer to provide employees with working conditions that provide first-class service, with emphasis on safety. Here, a distinction must be made between real safety and appreciable safety. If the train driver does not feel safe while working in the dark, passengers will not understand it because there is no direct contact between the passenger and the train driver. Each situation has some problems, challenges and concerns. Sometimes it doesn't seem like a solution, but it is usually easier than it seems at first. You have to start recognizing the problem, make it audible, and start looking for a solution. On the railway, it is popular with colleagues to solve various work problems in changing rooms, which usually stay there. The author's survey of the work revealed some problems with the lighting of trains and the health of drivers of rolling stock. Compared to the new train (Stadler FLIRT) and the old trains (DR1B, DR1A and ER2), the old trains were presented in the right light. One reason could be a light beam that was directed to the railway, not dissipated into distances. One of the hallmarks of halogen is the diffusion of light, but with previous passenger trains the light of the floodlight could be manually adjusted and directed to the lens as needed. The destructive rating was given to the Stadler FLIRT passenger train spotlight, where a 5-ball system scored 2.5 points. Eyesight glasses were written for 64% of the respondents in the next 5 years due to age, the light radiation of the monitors, illness, and the deterioration of the vision caused by the outdoor lights of the trains. When driving in the dark, disturbing factors were highlighted, with the highest percentage of eye fatigue, which could be caused by poor lighting and the radiating light from the monitors. In addition, poor lighting, climate, fog and rain driving, mental fatigue, and bad weather were mentioned. 15% of the respondents were not distracted by the younger drivers of the rolling stock. The monitors installed on the train cab are an absolutely delightful development in the technical world, but yet the development has not come so far that it is possible to adjust the brightness of the screens to be user-friendly. Changing the screen brightness offered by the system manager exceeds the price-normalization limit, which means that Elron is forced to reject the offer. Train drivers who are forced to work under these conditions are victims of this situation. A temporary solution is to place the tinted film on the screen to avoid the radiant light that interferes with the focus and interferes with vision in the dark. In terms of price, this is the most advantageous but cutting and laminating labor-intensive process. The Tile Film Solution cannot be permanent because it is finally annoying and rattling. Stadler FLIRT passenger trains are designed to serve suburban and regional waves. As a result, the construction of the train has also taken place, the seats for passengers are inconvenient and upright. In addition, there is no greater emphasis on the field lights, which have a ridiculously low visibility. Although it is a regional train in addition to a suburban train, it is not reflected in any technical specifications, except in the first class of diesel trains, with softer, minimally adjustable seats. Technological advances have also led to lower prices, with LED technology priced higher than halogen. However, we can claim that the LED lamp is much more accessible than 10 years ago. Outdoor lights from Stadler FLIRT passenger trains are supplied at the factory in accordance with DIN-EN 15153-1, for which there is no standard for outdoor lighting for trains at Elron. Consequently, there is no source document to check the current compliance of outdoor lighting with the standard. Here we can refer to the technical specification for interoperability relating to the rolling stock subsystem "locomotives and passenger rolling stock" of the European Union railway system, which does not have a specified luminous intensity or tone. The replacement of bulbs in outdoor lights initially seemed easy, but the following problems occurred during the work: 1) Technical compatibility of trains with LED bulbs 2) The difference in current tolerance between LED and halogen bulbs, does the train control system record the burning of the LED bulb? 3) overheating due to the power of the LED bulb, does the cooling of the LED module work in accordance with the train control unit? 4) Suitability of the lower middle and low beam headlamp socket 5) The company's will to improve the situation In order to improve the visibility of train drivers in the dark, small things have to be started that can have a significant impact on the driver's work. For the first time in a 5-year period, the cleaning of the inner glazing of the outdoor luminaire has been started and tested, which is caused by dust and climatic carbon black. In addition, the development of tint films, which began 2 years ago, is still in the development stage, but has not been implemented so far. In terms of outdoor lights, the most powerful halogen bulbs have been tested, but no results. However, we can argue that the problem is being addressed, but no significant results have been achieved. Finally, drivers of railway vehicles, who have to work under the given working conditions and violate their eyesight, are clear from the survey conducted. The braking performance of Stadler FLIRT trains is much better than the old trains and in many times the lives of many have been saved. But in the dark, the efficiency of the brake efficiency is 0 when visibility is limited by inefficient outdoor lighting.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Martin Kuusk
Subjects: Transport > Rail transport > Railway engineering
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Railway Engineering
Depositing User: Madis Kolli
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2019 09:40
Last Modified: 05 Jun 2019 09:40
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4267

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