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Põlevkivi rikastamisjääkide ladustamine Estonia kaevanduse näitel

Stanislav, Ignatovets (2014) Põlevkivi rikastamisjääkide ladustamine Estonia kaevanduse näitel. [thesis] [en] Storage of Oil Shale Tailings Based on the Mine Estonia.

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Abstract

Käesolevas lõputöös käsitleti Estonia kaevanduse rikastamisjäätmetehoidlat, mille rajamist alustati 1972 aastal ja tänaseks on see kujunenud suurimaks kunstlikuks mäeks maakonnas. Osa kasutatud materjalist oli saadud kaevanduse tööprojektidest. Uurimustulemuste järgi ladestatakse jäätmehoidlas aherainet suurtes kogustes igal aastal. Kogu kaevandatud mäemassist 43% moodustab aheraine ehk rikastamisjääk. Ladustatud aheraine sisaldab 3-8% põlevkivi. Iga-aastane aheraine ladustamine ulatub miljonite tonnideni. Jäätmehoidla suurust planeeritakse vastavalt kaevanduse varude suurusele. Tööde teostamiseks jäätmehoidlal on kehtestatud vastavad normid, mis minimiseerivad tööõnnetuse ohtu. Ladustamisel ja hoidla tasandamisel peavad olema ka vastavad ajanormid ning müra leevendavad tehnoloogiad selleks, et vältida naabruses elanike rahulolu. Pärast jäätmehoidla sulgemist viiakse läbi bioloogiline rekultiveerimine, mille all on mõeldud hoidla haljastamist ja puude istutamist. Antud töös läbiviidud riskianalüüsi põhjal võime väita, et tegemist on jäätmeseaduse kohaselt B-kategooria jäätmehoidlaga, kus puudub suurõnnetuse oht isesüttimise teel. Sinna ei ladestata ohtlikke jäätmeid ning ei kasutata kemikaaliseaduse kohaselt ohtlikke aineid. Antud rikastamisjäätmetehoidlas kasutatakse parimat tehnoloogiat rikastamisel ja ladustamise meetodit, kus ei eraldu reostunud nõrgvett ja sees ei teki nn. tuuletõmbet. Samas uuriti ka aheraine taaskasutuse võimalusi täitematrejalina või killustiku tootmiseks ehitustööde vajaduseks. Põlevkivi rikastamisel tekkivat aherainet kasutatakse nii töödeldult kui töötlemata. Töödeldes saadakse killustiku, mille tootmistehnoloogia on jõudnud nii kaugele, et lubab toota stabiilsete näitajatega IV klassi killustiku, mis sobib teedeehituseks. Töötlemata aherainet on kasutatud Ida-Virumaa keskkonda edendavate rajatiste ehitamisel. Ainukene takistav asjaolu on transpordi maksumus ja kaugus suurte ehituslikke piirkondadeni. Osa ladustatavast aherainest lähi tulevikus saab uue väärtuse spordi- ja meelelahutuse rajatiste kaudu. See peaks meelitama turiste maakonda: jäätmehoidla pealt on ilus vaade loodusele ja maakonna kontuurile. Samas mägi meelitab ekstreemspordi harrastajaid ning arendab motosporti.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to investigate enrichment storage of Estonia mine, which began in 1972, and today it has grown into the largest artificial mount of Estonia in the Ida-Viru county. Operating on the territory of Estonia mines rock mass are processed in special slurry tanks, that are divided into those which fit to burn the so-called industrial slate and those which do not fit for concentrating gangue. Gangue is a waste rock mass, which is not suitable for burning electricity and heat. According to research, mining waste has been unloaded in large quantities at the waste center every year. All the rock mass includes 43% of gangue. Stored gangue contains 3-8 % oil shale. Annual warehousing of gangue reaches millions of tons. Dimensions of waste storages, where is stored gangue are planned according to the amount of the reserve of mined rock. To perform work for the store the relevant rules are provided, which minimize the risk of accidents. For storage and container transportation should be set time standards and technologies of mitigate the noise, to interfere with the tranquility of the people living in the neighborhood. After closing the waste storage, biological reclamation is carried out; it means landscaping and tree planting. On the basis of risk analysis conducted in this work I can say that rock waste repository of Estonia main is under the law on waste qualifies as a storage category B, where is no risk of a major accident by spontaneous combustion. The warehouse does not contain any hazardous wastes and chemicals. In this waste store are used the best technology and the enrichment method of storage. We are dealing with a store with a bulk dump, where contaminated water is not allocated and there is no so-called sediment. Nevertheless, the storage of the waste is not the only possibility of waste utilization; this work discusses the possibility of alternative waste using. Mining rock waste can be recycled or used as material for the production of crushed stone. Shale mine waste can be used as treated and untreated. 50 Treated shale mine waste produce crushed stone production technology, which has gone so far that allows producing gravel with stable characteristics Class IV, which is suitable for road construction. A lot of gangue is used during construction, aimed to regional development of Ida -Viru County. In this case all parties get benefits: the environment is not a burden on the waste rock dumps, builders get cheap building materials, and finally the company is released from the payment of pollution. The only obstacle is a remote location from major construction cities, where gravel transportation will cost about half the price of gangue. From the gangue waste of Estonia mine will soon be made a new sports and entertainment facility. It has already been completed a project, after which storage and completion of the landscaping will become a tourist attraction, where extreme sportsmen can arrive and motorsport activities can be held. It should attract tourists as a recreational area, with a wonderful view of the nature, the contours of the terrain and the industrial area of the mine.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Sillaste Viiu
Subjects: Technoecology
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Stanislav Ignatovets
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2014 07:37
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 07:37
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/425

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