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Akumootoritega laevade laialdasem kasutuselevõtt eestis

Luud, Lauri (2019) Akumootoritega laevade laialdasem kasutuselevõtt eestis. [thesis] [en] The Application of Battery Powered Ferries in Estonia.

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Abstract

Selle lõputöö eesmärk on uurida akumootoritel töötavate laevade sobivust Eesti tingimustesse ning võimalust neid laiemalt kasutusele võtta. Praegusel ajal üha rohkem tähelepanu pälviv teema on looduskaitse ja ökoloogilise jalajälje vähendamine, mille üheks peamiseks väljundiks on süsihappegaasi tootvate mootorite asendamine heitgaaside vaba elektriajamitega. Kui mujal maailmas pühendatakse elektri- ja hübriid autodele, siis nii Norra kui ka Soome katsetavad hetkel esimesi akudel toimivaid ja üldkasutatavaid liinilaevu. Läänemeri on katsetamiseks suurepärane koht, kuna vahemaad on lühikesed ja kliimatingimused piisavalt varieeruvad, et näidata sedasorti mootorite võimekust ebasootsates oludes. Samuti on Läänemere ökoloogiline seisukord piisavalt hästi teada ning erinevate Läänemerekaitse organisatsioonide pideva jälgimise all. Selle tõttu on ka uutest meetoditest tulenevad muutused kergemini ning kiiremini näha. Lõputöö otsib vastust kahele peamisele küsimusele. Kas akumootoritega laevad on: • Majaduslikult mõistlikud • Ökoloogiliselt mõistlikud Lõputöö jaotub kolme peatükki. Esimeses käsitletakse Läänemere üldist olukorda, mis jaguneb omakorda kolmeks. Esimeses osa pühendub ökoloogilisele seisukorrale, saastatuse astmele ning laevanduse osale selles. Teises osas vaadeldakse Läänemerd hõlmavaid konventsioone ja mis täpsemalt on nende eesmärk. Kolmandas osas käsitletakse laevandust Eestis, kaardistades asustatud saared, tähtsamad laevateed nende vahel, laevade liikumissageduse nendel ning piiritletakse sobivamad laevaliinid millele uurimustöös edaspidi suuremat tähelepanu pühendatakse. Teises peatükis on tehtud ülevaade Soomes ja Norras, juba käigusolevatest, akumootoritega parvlaevadest. Vaadeldakse nende laadimismeetodit, teekonna pikkust ja sõitude tihedust. Kolmandas osas võetakse uuringu tulemused kokku, võrreldakse ökoloogilist kasu ning üritatakse leida vastust, kas elektrimootoritel töötavad alused on majanduslikult mõistlik arengusuund. Töös kasutatakse Soome ja Norra juhtumiuuringuid, prognoose ja reaalseid tulemusi. Suur osakaal on ka võrdlevatel analüüsidel. Peamine osa informatsioonist tuleb avalikult kättesaadavatest materjalidest ja internetis leiduvast perioodikast. Arvutused on autori oma tehtud, põhinedes leitud infol ja valemitel.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this research, The Application of Battery Powered Ferries in Estonia, was to find out the suitability of battery powered ships in Estonian conditions. For the purpose of this research, it was imperative to find out whether there was any need for these kinds of ships, whether using them would be more environmentally friendly and if it was financially sound decision. By the end of the research it can be deduced that there is a need for battery powered ferries. The Baltic sea, while protected by three large conventions and heavily regulated, is still with a very heavy marine traffic and thus in more danger of being polluted. Taking in mind that the Baltic sea water replaces fully in intervals of 22 years, pollution represents a very real danger to our nature reserves as well as our fish supplies. Also the air pollution was severe enough that the Estonian government has been preparing an electric grid infrastructure in ports, just to keep ships using their engines to provide electricity on their downtime and thus producing spot-pollution.Economically are battery powered ferries also reasonable because their price range is within the limits of ferries currently sailing the Virtsu-Kuivastu line, having no less worse capacity for people or vehicles. From the sales of tickets and savings from fuel consumption, it is possible that battery powered ferry will return the investment in itself back fairly fast. Estonia's own project applying an electric ferry is considering the possibility of taking preexisting ferry and rebuilding it to fit battery packs, making transition less costly. Of course the economical distance for electric ferries is limited currently to 10 km, meaning it can only used for nearshore hauls. On the ecological standpoint the electric ferries are the least environmentally harmful, specially when the local electric grid gets its energy from the renewable resources as example hydro energy in Norway or wind energy in Estonia. Compared to diesel engine or LNG ferries the electric ones have the least amount of CO2 exhausts. As an overall summary, it can be said that battery powered ferries have very strong prerequisites to fit in Estonia's conditions. Whether or not they will be actually taken to use is still debatable. As of now our fleet is new enough that it is not worth to invest into new ships. Although some ships can be repurposed to be battery powered by local shipyard the exact cost and possibilities vary from ship to ship. Also Estonian government has already invested in LNG fuel and its infrastructure because it can be used for longer voyages. Nonetheless, considering the advancement in technology and applying more laws to reduce our carbon footprint, it is quite possible that battery powered ferries will be taken to use in the niche of providing connection between Estonia's island and the mainland.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Tõnu Mägi
Subjects: Transport > Sea transport
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Lauri Luud
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2019 10:05
Last Modified: 26 Aug 2019 12:56
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4233

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