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Riigiteede aastaringne hoole

Kuimets, Hardi (2018) Riigiteede aastaringne hoole. [thesis] [en] Year-round maintance of national roads.

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Abstract

Käesolevas lõputöös kirjeldati tee talviseid- ning suviseid seisundinõudeid, anti ülevaade tehtavatest töödest ja masinatest mida hooldes kasutatakse. Hoolde kitsaskohtade lahendamiseks on välja pakkunud autor omapoolseid soovitusi alternatiivsetele lahendustele, materjalidele ja seadmetele hooldetööde efektiivsemaks ja ökonoomsemaks teostamiseks, mis aitaks kaasa ka liiklusohutuse tõstmisele ning ümbritseva keskkonna parandamisele. Lõputöö raames kirjeldati ilma- ja teeolude ennustamist – analüüsiti hetkel Eestis kasutuses olevaid süsteeme ja vahendeid. Kuna ilma ja- teeolude ennustus on libedusetõrjel üheks tähtsamaks teguriks nii liiklusohutuse seisukoha pealt kui ka materjalide kulude ja keskkonna säästmise aspektis. Analüüsi käigus andis ka autor omapoolese soovituse kuidas muuta ilma- ja teeolude ennustamine täpsemaks ja efektiivsemaks. Lõputöö ühe eesmärgina käsitleti alternatiivseid libedusetõrjevahendeid (kemikaalid, innovaatilised lahendused), mida on katsetatud nii Eesti kui ka mujal maailmas ning tänu millele on suutnud paljud riigid kloriidide mahapanekut vähendada kuid samas tõsta liiklusohutust. Ühe alternatiivina mida tasuks autori arvates kasutada on mehhaaniline karestamine „Jääpurustaja Raikoga“. Raikoga on teede karestamise efektiivsem kui traditsiooniliste karestamisteradega ning tänu väiksemale ressursikulule aitaks kokku hoida ka raha. Selle efektiivsus põhineb paindlikul ja vabalt pöörleval naeltega rullsüsteemil. Rulli surve murrab teepindadel olevaid kõvu, tihedaid jääkihte, et parandada teede haakuvust ja liiklusohutust ilma külmunud teekatet kahjustamata. Raiko võib koos alussahaga jääkihte lahti kiskuda ühe töökäigu jooksul kiirusega 50 km/h, mis aitab vältida liiklusummikuid. Suvel saab seadet kasutada kruusateede hooldamisel ja talvistele külmakahjustustele järgnevatel teehooldustöödel. KOKKUVÕTE 53 Teise alternatiivina võiks välja tuua SafeLane tee kattekihi. SafeLane tagab parema haarduvuse teepinnal kuna tal on omadus hoida kloriide paremini endas kui tavalised teekattepinnad ning seetõttu on ka tema külmumistemperatuur madalam. Safelane´i pealiskiht on naturaalselt reageeriv jäätumisvastane kiht, mis koosneb epoksiidliimist. Pealiskiht sisaldab jääd tõrjuvaid täitematerjale nagu soolvesi, mis vajadusel vabaneb ning hakkab tööle ennetades jääd ja libedaid tingimusi. SafeLane aitab kaasa liiklusohutusele ja keskkonna säästmisele ning lõppkokkuvõttes hoiab ka kulud madalamad kuna kuna sinna ei pea puistama niipalju libedusetõrjevahendeid kui tavalisele kattepinnale. Kolmandaks alternatiivseks libedusetõrjevahendiks, mida autori arvates võiks kasutusele võtta on Fixed Automated Spray Technology ehk FAST. See innovaatiline soolalahuse pihustamise seade on täiesti automaatne. FAST´il on oma andurid mis annavad teada teeolude muutumisest ning vastavalt vajadusele hakkab ise libedust ennetama või tõrjuma. Kuna tegemist on küllaltki kuluka seadmega nii soetamis- kui ka hooldekulude poolest, siis tasuks mõelda selle seadme kasutamist ohtlikes kohtades Lõputöö eesmärgina käsitleti alternatiivseid lahendusi CaCl´le tolmutõrje tegemiseks. Üheks alternatiiviks on toiduõli jääkide lisamine CaCl lahusele, mis aitab kaasa niiskuse veel paremaks sidumiseks kruusmatejaliga. Veel käsitleti alternatiivsete materjalidena Durasoli, kipsi, sulfiidleelist ja ligniini. Kuigi tänapäeval on olemas mitmeid erinevaid alternatiivseid vahendeid hooldetööde teostamiseks ei ole kõik vahendid veel nii laialdaselt kättesaadava, piisavalt katsetatud või on liiga kulukad, et neid Eestis kasutada. Kindlasti tasuks edaspidi hooldeettevõtjatel ja Maanteeametil käsitleda rohkem alternatiivseid lahendusi selleks, et optimeerida oma kulusid, tagada ohutumat liiklemist ja säästa keskkonda.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this graduation thesis Year-round maintance of national roads was to describe the works undertaken by the Road Administration in the framework of the rural areas of the country. In the thesis are described requirements for the road conditions during the winter and the summer, provided an overview of the work carried out and the machinery used in maintenance. In order to tackle the bottlenecks in maintenance, the author has proposed his recommendations to alternative solutions, materials and equipment to more effective and more economical performance, which would also contribute to improving road safety and improving the surrounding environment. In the context of the thesis, the forecast of weather and road conditions was described - the systems and resources which are currently in use in Estonia were analyzed. Since the forecast of weather conditions is one of the most important factors in the terms of ice control, as well as of material expenditure and the environmental sustainability of materials. In the course of the analysis, the author also gave his own recommendation on how to make it more precise and effective to predict weather and road conditions. As one of the goal of the thesis, was described the development of alternative anti slipperiness agents (chemicals, innovative solutions) that have been tested in Estonia and elsewhere in the world, which has made many countries to reduce the volume of chloride depletion and at the same time improving road safety. According to the author, one of the alternatives is the mechanical grinding of the road surface with the "Icebreaker Raiko". With Raiko the grinding of the road is more effective than traditional grinding blades, and due to lower resource costs, it could also help to save money. Its effectiveness is based on a freely rotating elastic spiked rolling system. Rolling pressure breaks hard and tight ice layers on road surfaces, to improve the grip and road safety without damaging frozen pavement. Raiko can break loose an ice layer in a one stroke at 50 km/h which helps to avoid traffic jams. In the summer, the device can be used in the maintenance of gravel roads and in the maintenance of roads after the frost damage. SUMMARY 55 As a second alternative, the SafeLane pavement surface could be pointed out. SafeLane ensures better grip on the road because it has the ability to keep chlorides better than ordinary pavement surfaces, and therefore its freezing temperature is lower. Safelane's topcoat is a natural responsive anti-freezing layer consisting of an epoxy adhesive. The toplayer contains de-icing aggregates such as salt water, which will, if necessary, be released and will prevent the ice and slippery conditions. SafeLane contributes to road safety and saving of environment, and ultimately, it will also keep costs lower because there is no need to sprinkle as much of the anti-slip agent as for the regular cover. For the third alternative among anti-slip agents, which the author believes could be introduced, is Fixed Automated Spray Technology (FAST). This innovative salt spray device is entirely automatic. FAST has its own sensors that provide information of the changes in road condition and based on the need starts the aoutomated de-icing. Since it is a fairly expensive appliance in both, purchasing and maintenance costs, the use of that device could be considered in dangerous locations. Alternative solutions for CaCl dust control was part of the goal of the thesis. Another alternative is to add cooking oil residues to the CaCl solution, which helps better locking of the moisture to the gravel . Durasol, gypsum, sulphide and lignin were also considered as alternative materials. Although nowadays there are several alternative methods to carry out maintenance work, but all tools are not widely available, sufficiently tested or are too expensive to be used in Estonia. These methods are definitely worth considering for the Road Administration road maintenance companies in the near future to use more alternative solutions in order to optimize their costs, ensure safer road traffic and also save the environment.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Meelis Seppam
Subjects: Construction > Road Construction > Road building
Construction > Road Construction > Road building > Road maintenance
Construction > Road Construction
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Road Construction
Depositing User: Hardi Kuimets
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2018 11:05
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2019 07:37
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/4110

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