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Biokütused ja nende kasutus väikekateldes

Matsalu, Marek (2014) Biokütused ja nende kasutus väikekateldes. [thesis] [en] Biofuels and their Utilization in Small-Scale Boilers.

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Abstract

Käesoleva lõputöö eesmärgiks oli vaadelda ja analüüsida põhjuseid, miks biokütuste ja väikekatelde kasutamine siiski Eestis suhteliselt aeglaselt levib. Autor leidis oma lõputöö käigus, et biomassi kasutavad katlad on keskkonda ja loodust säästvad, kuid nende lahendused on keerukamad ja tehnoloogia kallim (võrreldes näiteks gaasi või õli kateldega). Antud ajahetkel on kütuselahenduste valimisel finantsiline külg üks suurimaid otsuse mõjutajaid. Töös on välja toodud, et biomassi põletustehnoloogia (nii kütuse ettevalmistamine, etteanne kui ka põletamine) on tunduvalt kulukam, kui gaasi või õli põletamisel ning kui soovitakse oma alginvesteeringuid tasa teha, tuleb koormata biokütuse katlaid maksimaalselt, st peaksid töötama võimalusel aastaringselt baaskoormusel. Oma intervjuus OÜ Lihula Soojuse juhatuse esimehega, Tõnu Teesaarega, leidis intervjueeritav, et biokatelde populaarsuse kasvu üheks mõjutavaks teguriks on kütuste kättesaadavus. Kui biomassi ei ole piisavalt saadaval, võidakse hakata kasutama teisi keskkonnale kahjulikemaid kütuseid või jäetakse katel üldse seisma. Oluline on ka õige võimsusega katla valik, mis vastab koormusgraafikule. Tuleb jälgida, milline on reaalne soojustarve – kütte ja soojavee koormus. Odavate ja mitte nii töökindlate seadmete kasutamine võib kaasa tuua uusi lisakulutusi süsteemi väljavahetamiseks. Mis puudutab tööjõudu, siis mõnele katlamajale võib saatuslikuks saada töötajate ebapiisav kvalifikatsioon (kuigi täna peaksid kõik katlaoperaatorid olema atesteeritud). Oluliseks mõjuriks on konkurents biokütuse tarnijate, teiste katlamajade või väikekatelde omanike vahel. Maagaasi, põlevkiviõli ja kergekütteõli baasil töötavad katlad on tihti odavamad ja suurema kasutusmugavusega kui seda on biokütust kasutavad katlad, kuid kütus on kallim, eriti õli puhul. Kui biomassil toimivaid katlaid juurde tekib, kasvab biokütuse nõudlus, mis omakorda võib tõsta soojuse hinda. Samuti on biokütuste propageerimiseks olemas riiklik toetuste programm, kuid maaomanikele eraldatavad toetused on sageli ebapiisavad. Toetuste abil suureneks biomassi tarbeks põhu, looheina või muu biomassi varumine. Lisaks eeltoodule tuleks rohkem rõhku panna ka biokütuste ladustamise ohutusele ja selle järelvalvele, sest heinapallide ja põhupallide põlenguid Eestis siiski esineb (ca iga 2 kuu järel).

Abstract [en]

The aim of this graduation thesis is to explore and analyse the reasons why the use of biofuels (biological fuel or biomass fuel) and small boilers has not been widely gaining ground in Estonia. In the course of working on the final paper the author found that the boilers using biomass fuel preserve the environment and nature, but these solutions are more complex and require more expensive technologies (in comparison to gas or oil boilers for example). Today, when choosing the fuelling solution options the financial aspect is a major decision-making factor. This research draws a conclusion that the biomass fuel burning technology (the preparation, feeding and also the combustion of fuel) is far more costly than in the case of burning gas or oil. And so, if the investors wish to have return on their original investments, it is necessary to load the biofuel boilers to the limit, i.e. the boilers have to work potentially all year round at their base load. During an interview with Tõnu Teesaar, Chairman of the Board of OÜ Lihula Soojus, the interviewee found that one of the most important factors that promote the biofuel boiler popularity was the biofuel availability. If the supply of biomass is insufficient, it is possible that environmentally more harmful fuels might be used, or the boiler is just shut down. It is also important that a boiler with correct capacity is chosen, which correspond with the load schedule. It should be observed what the real heat demand is – fuel and hot water load. The putting into service of less expensive and not so reliable equipment can result in additional costs for the replacement of the heating system. As regards the workforce, the inadequate trade qualifications can become fatal for some boiler plants (although today all the boiler operators should be certified). The competition between the biofuel suppliers, other boiler houses or small boiler owners is a very important influencing factor. Natural gas, shale oil and light fuel oil fuelled boilers are often cheaper and more user-friendly than boilers using biofuel, but the fuel is more expensive, especially in the case of oil. As the number of boilers operating on combustion of biomass increases, the demand for biofuel increases as well that can, in turn, raise the cost of heating. Also, there is a national programme of biofuel promotion but the operating subsidies allocated to landowners are not sufficient. By means of operating subsidies the production of straw, hay and other kinds of biomass would increase for the biomass. In addition to the above-said, more emphasis should be focused on the biofuel storage safety and its inspection, since the ignition of hay trusses and straw bales still occur in Estonia (every 2 months on the average). Thereupon, the author comes to a conclusion that the use of biomass fuelled boilers preserves the environment but their putting into service is still relatively expensive. If the above-mentioned problems are not somehow dealt with, the growth of popularity of biofuel-based or small capacity combustion units cannot be expected in the near futuure.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Aadu Paist
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Biomass Combustion
Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Energy and the Environment
Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Sustainable Ecological Technologies
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Marek Matsalu
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2014 07:49
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2014 07:49
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/409

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