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Maanduspaigaldise teostus 330 kv alajaama näitel

Kresla, Rannar (2018) Maanduspaigaldise teostus 330 kv alajaama näitel. [thesis] [en] Earthing installation of 330 kV substation principle.

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Abstract

Lõputöö käigus projekteeriti rajatavale 330 kV alajaamale maanduspaigaldise projekt. Alajaama maanduspaigaldise projekt on tehtud kehtivate standardite alusel ja tellija poolt esitatud nõudmistele. Lõputöö teises osas, kus vaadeldi erinevaid paigaldusviise maanduselektroodidele, osutus projekti nõuetest lähtudes ainuvõimalikuks teostada alajaamale võrkmaandus. Võrkmaandusega tagatakse alajaama territooriumil kõige ühtlasem maapinna potentsiaal, mis on eriti tähtis, kuna rajatava alajaama territooriumi ala on oma mõõtmetelt suur. Lõputöö kolmandas osas anti ülevaade võimalikest elektrivoolu kahjulikest mõjudest, mis inimesele võib tekkida. Samuti, millised tegurid mõjutavad inimese keha läbivat voolu ja raskendavad elektrilöögist saadud traumat. Kirjeldatud on ka lähtuvalt voolu kestvast mõjust, millised on kahjulikud mõjud inimesele. Kuna elektri kokkupuudet inimesega on pea võimatu täielikult vältida siis ohtlike pingete kokkupuutmise vähendamiseks on kõige otstarbekam kasutada alajaamas võrkmaanduri kujunduspõhimõtet. Sellega viiakse alajaama alal võimalikud väikesed puute- ja sammupinged. Neljandas osas on esitatud maanduspaigaldise projekteerimise kohta käivad nõuded. Töö autor pidi projekteerima 330kV alajaamale maanduspaigaldise. Välja on toodud võrgusilmuse mõõtmed, mis võisid seadmetega varustatud alal ja seadmeteta alal erineda. Igale vundamendile tuli tagada potentsiaaliühtlustus ja maaga ühendus betoonis kulgeva maanduri kaudu. Kirjeldatud on ka seadmete ühendust maandusjuhiga ning potentsiaaliühtlustusjuhi kulgemist alajaamas, samuti millistes kohtadest pidid aiapostid olema ühenduses potentsiaaliühtlustusjuhiga. Viiendas osas kasutas töö autor erinevaid valemeid arvutuste tagamiseks. Nendest valemitest sai teada maandusjuhtide ja maandurite ristlõiked, maandustakistused, trafode näivtakistused, trafo neutraali maanduses kulgeva voolu, maandusvoolu, maanduspinge, puutepinge, sammupinge, lubatava puute- ja sammupinge ning kontrollarvutuse, mis näitas, kas maanduspaigaldis on ohutult ja korrektselt projekteeritud. Lisaks tõi ka autor välja, kui palju erinevad teoreetilisel teel saadud tulemused rakendusliku programmi teel saadud tulemustest. Kuna projekt on valminud ning arvutused näitasid, et maanduspaigaldis on ohutult ja korrektselt projekteeritud siis võib püstitatud eesmärgi lugeda täidetuks.

Abstract [en]

Current graduation thesis is describing the projecting phase and controlling calculous of the earthing installation of 330 kV substation to be built. Herewith the project is accordance to the valid standards and client’s input data and demands. Second part of the Thesis is comparing different possible ways of how the earting installation can be built out, but taking into account input data and standards the only suitable way of doing it is using earthing electrodes in grid. Using earthing electrodes in grid gives the most homogeneous value for the bonding potential that is crucial when we are taking into account as large territory as currect projected substation has. Third part of the Thesis is describing possible harmful effects of the electrical current, that can affect human health and its performance. There is also described the basics of the factors that can affect the electrical current flowing through the human body and aggravating traumas of the electrical shock. In addition to that Author brought out side-effects caused by the continuous effect of the electrical current. As of it’s nearly impossible to prevent the exposure between human and electrical current this Thesis proves that the best way to minimize the high risk of the electrical shock is to use earthing electrodes in grid, also the risk of touch and step voltage is minimized as much as possible. In the fourth part of the Thesis are presented all the requirements we need to take into account in the projecting phase of the earthing installation. The Author of the Thesis had to project the earthing system for the 330kV substation. In the studies Author found out thet the grid smesh dimensions for the equipped and non-equipped areas in the substation territory are different. Every equipment’s foundation had to be secured with bonding potential and connected to the earth through the electrode running through the concrete. There is also described the principle of the scheme of connection between equipment and earthing electrodes also the way how is secured the bonding potential between all the electrical conductors. In the fifth part of the Thesis Author is describing and explaining different calculous’s that is needed for the dimensioning and matching the right components and characteristics e.g. earthing electrodes cross-sections, earth resistance, zero sequence impedance of the two transformer, transformer neutral current, earth potential rise, current to earth, step voltage, touch voltage, tolerable touch and step voltage and controlling calculous to ensure that the projecting phase is properly performed. In addition to that Author also presented the difference between outcome of the theorethical and operational program’s results. As of the controlling calculous’s are proving that the earthing installation is projected properly and all the needed safety measures are taken into account we can satisfy with the final objective.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Olev Rand
Co-advisor: Margus Plaser
Subjects: Mechanical Engineering > Electrical Engineering and Electrical Equipment > Energy Technology and Automation
Mechanical Engineering > Electrical Engineering and Electrical Equipment
Divisions: Institute of Engineering > Electrical Engineering
Depositing User: Rannar Kresla
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2018 12:25
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2019 08:29
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3820

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