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Pürotehniliste toodete tarnevõimalused Hiinast

Saar, Siiri (2018) Pürotehniliste toodete tarnevõimalused Hiinast. [thesis] [en] The delivery options of pyrotechnic articles from China.

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Abstract

Lõputöö autor uuris oma töös pürotehniliste toodete tarnevõimalusi ettevõtte Hansa Ilutulestikud OÜ näitel. Tulemusteni jõudmiseks kasutas autor abivahendina uurimisküsimusi, millele ta ka töö koostamise käigus vastused leidis. Püstitatud uurimisküsimused on välja toodud töö sissejuhatuses. Uurimisstrateegiaks oli kombineeritud juhtumiuurimus. Autor näeb probleemina asjaolu, pürotehniliste toodete tarned Hiinast on ebakindlad. Ebakindlust on tekitanud nii Hiina valitsuse poolt kehtestatud tootmisseisakud ja sellega koos pikad veoajad. Uuritava probleemi fookuses oli Hiina tarnija tarnetäpsus ning sellest tulenev võimalik ettevõtte müügikäibe langus. Töö esimeses peatükis andis töö autor ülevaate pürotehnika tarnimisega seotud aspektidest. Töö teises peatükis on uurimisprobleemi püütud lahendada analüüsides kolme erinevat tarnestsenaariumit. I stsenaariumiks oli pürotehniliste toodete tellimuse esitamine kahes osas, kus üks tellimus tehakse ajaliselt varem jaanuarikuus ja teine pärast rendilepingute sõlmimist kaubanduskettidega. II stsenaariumiks oli osaline tarne Euroopast, kus osa aastasest kogusest tarnitakse Serbiast ja teine osa Hiinast nagu seni on ettevõtte praktika olnud. III stsenaariumiks oli raudteeveo võimalus, kus uuriti võimalust asendada merevedu kiirema raudteetranspordi vastu. Stsenaariumite analüüsis lähtuti viiest kriteeriumist, milleks olid tarnija valik, ohtliku kaubaveo spetsiifika, tarnetingimused, tarneriskid ja hind. Stsenaariumite võrdluse tulemusel jõuti järeldusele, et iga-aastase tellimuse jaotamine kaheks tarnekulusid ei suurenda, kuid see vähendab oluliselt tarneriski. Selle stsenaariumi kohaselt tõstab esimene tellimus tarnetäpsuse protsenti oluliselt ja kindlustab sellega 1/3 kauba kohaletoimetamise hooaja alguseks. Geograafiliselt lähedamal asuva tarnija kaasamine ettevõtte laovarude kindlustamisel tõstab tarnekulusid keskeltläbi 10%, kuid vähendab olulisel määral tarnetäpsusega ja kvaliteediga seotud tarneriske. Tänu lühikesele veoajale on ettevõttel võimalik Serbiast tellimus esitada varasemast hiljem ning seeläbi hoida kokku välisfinantsvahendite intresside pealt. Raudteevedu on teoreetiliselt võimalik, eeldades maismaatransporti Hiina territooriumil ning on kiirem kui merevedu. Ka tarnetäpsuse ja kvaliteediga seotud tarneriskid on raudteeveo puhul väiksemad, kuid varasema praktika puudumise tõttu tekitab see veoviis palju ebakindlust. Tarnekulud on raudteeveo stsenaariumi puhul ebamõistlikult suured, kus veomaksumus on kauba maksumusega võrdne. Kokkuvõtteks tegi töö autor ettevõttele ettepaneku senist ostujuhtimist muuta kasutades eelpool analüüsitud kombineeritud tarne- ja veoviise vastavalt ettevõtte järgmise müügiperioodi prognoosidele. Kõige kulu- ja ajaefektiivsema stsenaariumina tõi autor välja tellimuse esitamise kahes osas, kus esimene tellimus teha jaanuaris ja teine pärast üürilepingute sõlmimist kaubanduskettidega.

Abstract [en]

This thesis is written on the example of Hansa Ilutulestikud OÜ and it is driven by the author's relations to the company. The author sees instability of the delivery of pyrotechnic articles from China as a problem. The demand for pyrotechnic products is during a very short period of the year, since it is a very seasonal product and 80% of the sales take place in December, so timely delivery is crucial. Otherwise, a company has nothing to sell during the season, profit will not be received and remaining stocks will lock up capital. The articles must be paid for and department store chains also demand high prices for rental spaces. This could result in a very complicated financial situation for the company. The deliveries from China have been very unstable in the past couple of years, a delay of 1–2 months on average. This has mainly been caused by production restrictions established by the Chinese government and the long transportation times accompanying it. Maritime transport delivery time is nearly 40 days and lately it has gotten longer in order to save fuel. The focus of the research problem was the delivery accuracy of a Chinese supplier and the possible declines in sales it could cause to the Estonian company. Due to unstable deliveries, there was a need to find alternative solutions which would ensure timely delivery, that is products would reach the stockroom before the season. Consequently, the aim of the thesis was to find the most time and cost-effective solution for the delivery of pyrotechnic articles from China to Estonia. The thesis consists of two chapters. The first chapter gives an overview of pyrotechnic articles, their demand, companies active on the market of Estonia, possible modes of transport, transportation specifics for dangerous goods, delivery conditions and risks. The second chapter describes the selection of research strategy and methods, and the analysis of possible solution methods. Three scenarios are analysed. The first analysed delivery option is the submission of an order in two parts in which the first is done in January and the second after the conclusion of commercial lease contract with the shopping centre. The second analysed option is the possibility to do a partial delivery from Europe in which part of the goods could be delivered from Serbia and the other part from China. The third analysed delivery option is rail transport in which maritime transport is replaced by rail transport. The analysis of the scenarios was based on five criteria which were the choice of the supplier, specifies of the transport of dangerous goods, delivery terms, delivery risks and prices. As a result of the comparison of scenarios, it was concluded that splitting the order in two does not increase the delivery expenses but it significantly decreases the delivery risks. According to this scenario, the first order considerably increases the accuracy of the delivery, and therefore ensures that 1/3 of the goods are delivered by the start of the season. By including the supplier who is geographically closest in the insurance of company’s stocks, increases the delivery expenses on average by 10% but decreases the delivery risks related to delivery accuracy and quality significantly. Thanks to the short transportation time, the company has the possibility to submit an order from Serbia later than usual and thus save on the interests of foreign financial instruments. Rail transport is theoretically possible, assuming land transport on the territory of China, and it is faster than maritime transport. The delivery risks related to delivery accuracy and quality are also smaller but because there is no prior practice, this way of transport causes a lot of uncertainty. The delivery expenses in case of rail transport are unreasonably large but the transport cost is equal compared to the cost of goods. In conclusion, the author of the thesis proposed the company to change the existing purchasing management by using the previously analysed combined delivery and transport methods according to the upcoming sales period and estimations of the company. The most time and cost-effective scenario was the submission of an order in two parts in which the first one had to be submitted in January and the second after the conclusion of commercial lease contracts with department store chains.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Jelizaveta Janno
Subjects: Transport > Logistics > Logistics and supply chain management > Supply chain management
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Siiri Saar
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2018 07:42
Last Modified: 12 Jun 2018 07:42
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3750

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