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Hiigelkonteinerlaevade kasutamise majanduslikud eelised euroopa ja kaug-ida vahelisel kaubavahetusel

Andla, Merili (2018) Hiigelkonteinerlaevade kasutamise majanduslikud eelised euroopa ja kaug-ida vahelisel kaubavahetusel. [thesis] [en] The Economic Benefits of Using Mega Vessels in the Trade Between Europe and the Far-East.

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Abstract

Võimaldades üha tõhusamalt mandritevahelist kaubavahetust on meretranspordi areng olnud globaliseerumise üheks olulisemaks osaks. Viimase 20 aasta jooksul on nõudlus konteinerlaevade teenuste vastu enam kui kolmekordistunud. Nõudluse suurenedes on suurenenud ka pakkumine, mistõttu on laevaliinide jaoks oluline maksimeerida igat väiksematki konkurentsieelist, mille kasutamiseks ettevõttel võimalus avaneb. Konkurentsis püsimiseks peab olema laevaliin võimeline sammu pidama ka konkurentide hinnatasemega, mida on võimalik teha läbi kulude minimeerimise. Üheks jätkusuutlikuks kulude minimeerimise meetodiks on üha suurema kandevõimega konteinerlaevade kasutuselevõtt. Seda iseloomustab fakt, et viimase kümne aastaga on keskmine uute ehitatavate laevade kandevõime rohkem kui kahekordistunud. Ehkki kogukulud ühe laeva kohta suurenevad, annab suurema kandevõimega laev võimaluse teenida ühe reisi pealt rohkem tulu. Käesoleva lõputöö eesmärgiks oli uurida hiigelkonteinerlaeva kasutamise majanduslikku mõju ühe ühiku ehk TEU kohta. Eesmärgi saavutamiseks viidi läbi kombineeritud ülevaateuurimus, mille käigus koguti andmeid teadus- ja uudisartiklitest, statistika andmebaasidest ning ekspertintervjuust. Uurimus viidi läbi võrreldes kolme tingliku – 15 000, 20 000 ja 25 000 TEU mahutava konteinerlaeva kulusid. Uuritavaks teekonnaks oli reis Antwerpenist Singapuri kogupikkusega 17 132 kilomeetrit ning kõikide laevade kiiruseks arvestati 18 sõlme, mis teeb reisi kestuseks ligikaudu 22 päeva. Ühe TEU omahinna arvestamiseks kasutati lõputöös nelja kululiiki, milleks on: • tegevuskulud, mille aluseks võeti laevameeskonna palgakulu, • perioodilised laeva hoolduskulud, • reisi maksumus, mille alla kuuluvad kütusekulu ja sadama- ning kanalitasud, • kapitalikulu, mille peamisteks komponentideks on laeva ehitusmaksumus ja eluiga. KOKKUVÕTE 34 Analüüsi tulemustest selgus, et täieliku täituvuse puhul on madalaima kuluga ühiku kohta võimalik kaupa transportida kasutades suurimat, 25 000 TEU mahutavat laeva, võimaldades langetada kulu ühiku kohta kuni 170,8 USA dollarini. Ühiku omahind püsib tema väiksemast alternatiivist madalam vaid kuni 95,6% täituvuseni, seega kui 25 000 TEU mahutava laevaga vedada vähem kui 23 892 TEU, on ühikukulu väiksema laevaga soodsam. Võrreldes 20 000 ja 15 000 TEU mahutavaid laevu, tuleb esimese ühikukulu madalam alates täituvusastmest 92,7% ehk suurema laeva kasutamist õigustaks minimaalselt 18 539 TEU vedamine. Läbiviidud uurimus annab ülevaate konteinerlaevaga seotud kulude kujunemises ning toob välja tasuvuspunkti, millal suurema laeva kulu ühiku kohta tuleb madalam. Käesolev lõputöö annab võimaluse ka edasisteks uurimusteks. Et saada veelgi täpsemad tulemused, tuleks põhjalikumalt uurida nõudluse poolt, et sellele vastavalt planeerida uute hiigellaevade kasutuselevõttu.

Abstract [en]

Maritime transport has been one of the keys to globalisation, as the vast majority of all exchanged goods use vessels to get from point A to point B. The demand for the larger vessels is clearly an increasing trend as the capacity in TEU-s of the average newly built vessels today is nearly twice as big as the average vessel built 10 years ago. The competition between container shipping companies is getting more and more tight and only the smartest and strongest are able to survive. As the prices are set by the market and the customers are price-sensitive, a shipping company really has two options – either they are able to offer the market price or they will close down their business. Because of the tough competition, minimizing the costs is essential to avoid the second option. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the usage of mega vessels between Far East and Europe. For that, the author has asked three research questions: 1. How do the technical parameters of the vessel affect the cost price of one TEU? 2. How does the size of the vessel affect cost price of one TEU? 3. According to today’s and forecasted demand, which would be the optimal size of the vessel built for the route between Europe and Far East? These questions are explained and answered in three chapters. In the first chapter, the author breaks down the definition and history of maritime trade and containerized transport and its’ problems as well as importance to the world’s economy. The second chapter gives an overview of the methodology used in the thesis. It also gives the descriptions of different components which affect the cost price of a vessel trip. The third chapter concludes the cost price analysis and presents the results. SUMMARY 36 The research method is a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The sources of the thesis are scientific texts, news articles, statistics databases and an interview with an expert. The analysis is carried out for three hypotetical ships with the maximum capacity of 15 000 TEU, 20 000 TEU and 25 000 TEU, latter of which is yet to be topped by the existing fleet of mega vessels. The route selected for the analysis is from Antwerp to Singapore, making the trip 17 132 kilometres long. The speed of each of the vessels is 18 knots, which adds up to a trip lasting for approximately 22 days. The cost price analysis is based on three major cost categories: • operating costs, which consists of the manning cost, • maintenance costs, • voyage costs, which consists of port and canal fees and is driven by the cost of fuel, • capital cost, which is mostly affected by the price of the vessel. The results of the analysis show that with the occupancy rate of 100%, the most cost efficient way to use for transportation is to go for the fully loaded 25 000 TEU container ship, reaching the unit price of 170,8 US dollars. The average occupancy rates for the vessels sailing between Asia and Europe deviate between 65-103%, so the author also had to find the scenarios, in which cases using a bigger vessel is reasonable. As it turns out, the biggest ship under the observation has to be filled at least 95,6% (at least 23 892 TEU) for its cost per TEU to be smaller than the vessel with the maximum capacity of 20 000 TEU. The same comparison was done also for the smaller vessels – the occupancy rate of a 20 000 TEU vessel has to be at least 92,7% (18 539 TEU) for the bigger vessel to operate more efficiently than the fully loaded 15 000 TEU vessel.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Jelizaveta Janno
Subjects: Transport > Sea transport
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Merili Andla
Date Deposited: 11 Jun 2018 13:07
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2019 08:34
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3715

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