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Rahvusooper Estonia uus ooperimaja

Arvisto, Mari (2013) Rahvusooper Estonia uus ooperimaja. [thesis] [en] New Opera House for Estonian National Opera.

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Abstract

1913. aastal valminud Soome arhitektide Armas Lindgreni ja Wivi Lönni projekteeritud juugendklassitsistlik Eesti Teater Estonia hoone oli suurim tollases Tallinnas. „Estonia“ teatrimajas on ehitamisest alates toimunud mitmeid Eesti ajaloos tähelepanuväärseid poliitilisi, kultuuri-, spordi- ja muid sündmusi. Tallinna ainus spetsiaalselt ooperi- ja balletietenduste andmiseks ehitatud saal on jäänud aga vajadustele väikeseks. Alates eelmise sajandi 70-ndatest aastatest on korraldatud erineva asukohaga arhitektuurikonkursse ooperimaja ideelahenduse leidmiseks, kuid ühel või teisel põhjusel on hoone jäänud püstitamata. 2010. aastal tuli teatrijuht Aivar Mäe kutsel esimest korda kokku ümarlaud, et arutada rahvusooperi laienemisplaane. Arutelude tulemusel valmis ülevaatlik dokument, mis järjestas linnaehituslikult parimad paigad uuele ooperiteatrile. Kuna Admiraliteedi basseini äärsele alale on tehtud teistsuguse funktsiooniga detailplaneering, on see kindel takistus antud alale ooperiteatri projekteerimisele. Diplomitöös analüüsiti teisi potentsiaalseid ooperimaja asukohti ning käesolevas töös otsustati Solarise keskuse ja Teaduste Akadeemia maja vahelise haljasala kasuks, mis on tuntud Teatri väljaku nime all. Tulenevalt krundi suurusest uuriti erinevaid nn kompaktooperimajade projekte ning kontrolliti selle sobivust Teatri väljakule. Diplomitöö käigus koostati ooperiteatri ruumiprogramm, mis toetus Islandil Reykjavikis asuva Kopavoguri ooperimaja lahendusele. Analüüsiti erinevaid asendiplaanilisi skeeme ja leiti sobiv lahendus. Uut hoonet lääne poolt piirav sõidutee on muudetud kahesuunaliseks ja loodud on ühistransporditasku. Solarise keskuse kõrval paiknenud ühesuunaline sõidutee likvideeritakse ning asendatakse see jalakäijate alaga. Tekkinud linnaväljakut saab läbida nii loode-edelasuunaliselt kui ka lõuna-põhjasuunaliselt ning see suunab ka ooperiteatri maa-alusele korrusele. Säilitatud on krundi lõunaosas paiknev park-haljastus. Likvideeritud on haljastus krundi servadel, kuid säilitatud on Solarise keskuse ja samuti ka Teaduse akadeemia hoone esine kõrghaljastus. Hoone arhitektuuri dikteerib paljuski ruumiprogramm ja ruumidele esitatud nõuded. Seetõttu võeti hoone lahendamisel aluseks ooperiteatri „süda“, lavaplokk koos torniga ning ülejäänud 32 ruumiprogramm paigutati selle ümber vajalikke horisontaalseid ja vertikaalseid ühendusi silmas pidades. Projekteeritav hoone peab arvestama ümbritsevat linnaruumi ning seetõttu tuleb hoiduda ooperimaja ja kõrvalhoonete vahelise ala muutmisest liiga kitsaks, takistades inimeste liikumist ja tekitades nn „pudelikaela“ olukordi. Seetõttu on hoone 1. ja 2. korrusel kitsam ning 3. ja 4. korrusel laiem. Võimaldatud on liikumine olemasoleva „Estonia“ teatrihoone ja uue ooperimaja vahelt: maa-alusel korrusel asub kahte hoonet ühendav plokk, kus asuvad valgust mittevajavad ruumid. Samuti pääsevad ühest hoonest teise ka külastajad. Uue ooperimaja parklat saavad kasutada seega mõlema hoone külastajad. Hoone funktsioonist tulenevalt eeldab fassaadilahendus ajatuid, klassikaliseid materjale. Fassaadikontseptsioon rõhutab hoone vormi ja arhitektuurset ideed, mistõttu on hoone esimesel ja teisel korrusel kasutatud ühte ning eenduval kolmandal ja neljandal korrusel teist materjali. Ülemistel korrustel on kasutatud fassaadikattena oksüdeeritud vaskprofiili ning alumistel piimjat klaasprofiliiti.

Abstract [en]

In 1913 the Estonia Theatre in Tallinn designed by Finnish architects duo Armas Lindgren and Wivi Lönn was completed. The theatre which was designed in Art Nouveau/classicist style was the largest building in Tallinn back then. Since the erection the theatre building has accomodated many political, cultural, sport and other events that have a remarkable part in Estonia’s history. The only theatre building in Tallinn that was built specially for opera and ballet performances, has become too small. From the 1970’s onwards various architectural competitions have been organized in order to find a solution for a new opera house, but for different reasons the building has not been built yet. On 2010 the theater manager Aivar Mäe gathered a group of specialists to discuss the expansion of the National Opera. The discussions resulted in an overview document, in which the best possible sites for the new opera house were proposed. Unfortunately the favourite area next to the Admiraliteedi pool has already been planned out differently and this means the opera cannot be designed on that site. In this thesis other potential locations for the opera house were analyzed, and in this study it was decided to design the building into the park next to Solaris Centre which is today known under the name of Teatri väljak. Due to the size of the plot a variety of so-called „compact opera houses“ has been studied and thereby the site’s suitability for the theatre was verified. In this thesis the room programme was based on the Kopavogur opera house in Iceland, Reykjavik. Various situational schemes were analysed and a suitable solution was found. The road east from the building has been changed into two-way street. The one-way road next to the Solaris Centre is replaced by a pedestrian area. The new public square can be a crossed by the north-south direction, and also the south-north direction. It also enables opera guests to enter the underground floor. The building architecture is mainly prescribed by the characteristics of the site and the room programme. Therefore, the stage area with the fly tower was the basis of the design and the rest of the rooms were packed around it keeping all necessary horizontal and vertical connections in mind. 34 The building should be designed taking the city environment into account. It should be avoided for the opera house and outbuildings to be too close together which would imped the movement of pedestrians and create a "bottleneck" situation. Therefore, the building’s ground floor and 2nd floor are narrower than the upper two floors. It is enabled to go from the existing Estonia theatre to the new opera house: on the underground floor there is a connecting block which also accomodates rooms that are not in need of direct daylight. There is also a connectin tunnel for the visitors and the parking lot can be used by both theatre buildings. The function of this building requires the use of timeless, classic materials in the façade solution. The concept emphasizes the architectural idea of the building. This is why the first two floors of the building are covered by one and the upper floors by another material.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Ott Kadarik
Subjects: Architecture > Applied Architecture > Architectural Design
Divisions: Institute of Architecture > Applied Architecture
Depositing User: Kaja Lattu
Date Deposited: 16 Dec 2013 13:13
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2013 13:13
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/368

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