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Fosfori bilanss reoveepuhastusjaamas

Karvanen, Timo (2018) Fosfori bilanss reoveepuhastusjaamas. [thesis] [en] Phosphorus Balance in Wastewater Treatment Plant.

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Abstract

Fosforiringe on täiesti tavaline loodusliku protssessi osa. Aga kui fosforit satub keskkonda liiga palju, muutub see keskkonnale ja ka inimesele probleemiks. Vetikate õitsengud on toimunud regulaarselt juba aastasadu. Aga tänapäeval on need muutumas järjest sagenevaks probleemiks. See raskendab vee ökosüsteemi tööd ning võib ka olla ohtlik inimesele. Peamiseks vetikate õitsengu põhjuseks, on liigne toitainete nagu näiteks fosfori ja lämmastiku sattumine keskkonda. Peamiselt jõgedest, põldude nõrgveena ja linnadest heitveena merre. Läänemeri on üks väiksema veevahetusega meri maailmas, millele on palju suublaid aga üks väljavool, milleks on Taani väin. Tänu vähesele veevahetusele, on see vastuvõtlik igasugusele inimtegevusele. Läänemere kaitseks on koostatud organisatsioon HELCOM, mis tegeleb probleemide kaardistamise, nendega tegelemise, õigusaktide ning piirnormide määramisega. Inimene saab liigset fosfori sattumist keskkonda ära hoida, puhastades oma reovett. Reovesi sisaldab, peamiselt tänu pesuainetele, palju fosforit. Reoveepuhastusjaamad tegelevad igapäevaselt fosfori eeemaldamisega reoveest, et suunata merre piisavalt puhast heitvett. Reoveepuhastusprotsess koosneb mehaanilisest, bioloogilisest ja keemilisest puhastusprotsessist. Viimaseks etappiks on settekäitlus. Igal protsessiosal on oma roll fosfori eemaldamiseks reoveest. Käesolevas lõputöös sai püstitatud eesmärk koostada reoveepuhastusjaamale fosfori bilanss ning seejärgi optimeerida reoveepuhasti opereerimist. Selleks teostas autor vajalikud katsed ning arvutused. Bilansist tuli välja, et pea 20% fosforist võib lihtsalt protsessis ringelda ning suuremate vooluhulkade puhul võib probleeme tekitada opereerimises. Praeguste uute teadmistega on võimalik optimeerida reoveepuhasti tööd. Kui tehnoloog ja protsessijuht, teavad oodata suuremaid sisemiste vooluhulkade ehk koormuste tõusu, saavad nad protsessis ennetavalt viia sisse vajalikud korrektuurid, sest jaama on oodata suuremaid fosfori koguseid. Antud lõputööga seonduvat võiks kindlasi tulevikus edasi uurida.

Abstract [en]

The phosphorus cycle is a completely normal process happening in nature. That doesn‟t deter it becoming a major problem for both humans and the environment itself if too much phosphorus makes it into the environment. Algae has flourished normally for eons, but recently algae has been starting to flourish more often and often. This in turn increases the load on the water ecosystem and may potentially bring harm to humans. The primary reason for the flourishing of algae is excessive nutrients spilling into the environment, like phosphorus and nitrogen. These nutrient most often come via rivers, as water from soil on farms and from cities as wastewater that has been dumped into oceans. The Baltic Sea has one of the lowest water exchange rates in the world, whilst having lot of water intake but only one output, the Danish Strait. Thanks to this poor water exchange, it is highly susceptible to any kind of damage from human activity. There‟s an organization made for the protection of the Baltic Sea called HELCOM, which actively deals with finding current problems, dealing with them, and also issuing various legal acts and quotas. Humans can prevent unnecessary phosphorus from being leaked into the environment by cleaning our wastewater. Wastewater contains a large amount of phosphorus, mostly due to the high concentration of it in cleaning products. Wastewater treatment plants deal with removing phosphorus from it on a daily basis, so water that is as clean as possible could be directed to the seas. The process of cleaning wastewater consists of mechanical, biological and chemical treatments. The last step in the treatment process is residue management. Each process has its own role in eliminating phosphor from wastewater. The goal established in this research paper was to create a balance sheet depicting phosphorus levels for a wastewater treatment plant, which thus leads us to the possibility of enhancing and optimizing the wastewater treatment process. To aid in this goal, the author conducted the necessary experiments and calculations. It was found that almost 20% of phosphorus can just cycle around in the process, this means that during heavy influxes, there may be problems in the operations of the wastewater treatment plant due to the high amounts of phosphorus. 26 Thanks due to the findings made, it is possible to enhance the operation of the wastewater treatment. If the technician and process manager know they‟re expecting a higher influx of wastewater, they could do the corresponding alterations in the process to aid in dealing with the extra inflow. Other fields related to this research paper should definitely be further explored in the future.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Erki Lember
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Drinking and Waste Water Processing and Networks
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Timo Karvanen
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2018 13:05
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2019 13:16
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3664

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