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Omapuhastite rajamine hajaasustusalal ja sellega kaasnevad nõuded

Heinla, Hanna-Liis (2018) Omapuhastite rajamine hajaasustusalal ja sellega kaasnevad nõuded. [thesis] [en] Designing an On-site Treatment System in a Low-density Population Area and the Accompanying Requirements.

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Hajaasustusaladel, kus ei ole võimalik ühiskanalisatsiooniga liituda, tuleb rajada kohtpuhastussüsteem. Selleks, et vältida võimalikku negatiivset keskkonnamõju näiteks kohaliku kaevu joogivee, piirkonna põhjavee või pinnavee reostumist toitainete, reoainete ning kahjulike bakterite ja viirustega. Samuti vähendada sellest tulenevat riski inimeste tervisele, et puhas veekeskkond ja joogivesi säiliks ka tulevatele põlvedele, tuleb järgida antud valdkonda reguleerivaid õigusakte. Autori hinnangul on antud valdkond õigusaktidega keeruliselt reguleeritud. Läbiviidud uurimustöö tulemusena selgus, et omavalitsuste ametnikud, kelle poole inimesed omapuhastite paigaldamisega seotud informatsiooni saamiseks peamiselt pöörduvad, annavad käsitletud valdkonnas erineva mahu ja kvaliteediga teavet. Seetõttu on ka tavakodanikule keeruline kättesaadava teabe põhjal rajada nõuetele vastav kohtpuhastussüsteem. Ametnikud üksi ei ole võimelised puhast looduskeskkonda tagama, kuid nad saavad inimeste teadlikkust informatsiooni levitamisega tõsta. Kõige informatiivsemaks veebis kättesaadavaks eesti keelseks materjaliks on Keskkonnaministeeriumi poolt välja antud juhendmaterjal hajaasustuse reoveekäitlussüsteemide kavandamiseks, valikuks, ehitamiseks ja hooldamiseks, millele ka omavalitsuste ametnikud antud valdkonnas võiksid oma vastustes viidata. Tavakodanikul on võimalik kättesaadava info põhjal rajada nõuetele vastav kohtpuhastussüsteem, kuid selleks peab inimene ise olema piisavalt teadlik ning oskama valdkonna kohta täiendavalt küsida. Selgus ka, et tõepoolest on vähestel omavalitsustel kehtestatud reovee kohtkäitlus ja äraveo eeskiri, mis hõlbustaks samuti inimestel kohtpuhastite paigaldamisega seonduvat järgida. Autori hinnangul tuleks olukorda riiklikult kontrollida.

Abstract [en]

For decades it has been common that in low-density population areas, where connection to the public sewage system is impossible, to channel wastewater into the body of water nearest to the residence or into the soil without any prior treatment. Nature has great capacity for self-purifying, but the number of people has constantly been increasing and living conditions and habits have changed. More water is being consumed and thus more wastewater is produced. Human activity has significantly altered the concentration of organic matter, nutrients, pesticides and pathogens in the water bodies of the world that has, in turn, led to an increase in eutrophication and spread of contagious diseases. One of the most common on-site treatment systems is the septic tank that has been considered to be an efficient and permanent water treatment system in rural areas. The rates of wastewater treatment are indeed high (70-90%) when the system has been designed, planned, installed and maintained correctly. However, when the system ceases to function properly, local groundwater and soil water may become contaminated and pose a threat to humans’ health and the environment. Hence, national monitoring and regulation of the installing and use of on-site water treatment systems are important. Relevant materials and valid legislation were used in the process of compiling this thesis. For the practical section of this thesis, the author searched the real estate portals for properties for sale in low-density population areas (15 properties altogether) and sent e-mails to the environmental specialists to the local authorities of the areas. The e-mails were presented as they had been sent by ordinary citizens who are interested in buying the property and wish to acquire information on whether it is possible to install a septic tank there and which local authorities permits they should apply for. The letters were sent from the author’s personal e-mail address to ensure that the officials’ replies would be as realistic as possible. The author also made inquiries regarding companies that install sewage systems. 10 officials from local authorities replied and their replies were studies in the light of groundwater protection map of Estonia, Land Board map applications, databases of the Environmental Board and Riigi Teataja (State Gazette). The results revealed that 10 e-mails were replied to out of the 15 e-mails sent to local authorities. Out of the respondents, three local authorities had valid rules for wastewater disposal and on-site treatment, despite the obligations implemented by the Water Act. Local authorities officials provide information of different quantities and of different quality because there are a number of acts that have to be taken into consideration. According to the author’s estimation, the regulations of the area of water treatment are complicated. The officials alone are not able to ensure a clean environment but they can increase people’s awareness by sharing information. The most informative material in Estonian available online is the guidance material published by the Ministry of the Environment, focusing on the design, choice, installing and maintenance of water treatment systems in low-density population areas. The author finds that the officials of local authorities could reference this material in providing information to people. It is possible for an ordinary citizen to establish an on-site water treatment system meeting all the requirements; however, the person must be rather knowledgeable in this area and know where request further information. It also became clear that only a few local authorities have rules for the on-site treatment and removal of wastewater that would assist people in complying with the requirements for on-site treatment systems. The author finds that the situation should be regulated by the state.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Made Saadve
Co-advisor: Erki Lember
Subjects: Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Introduction to Environmental Protection
Technoecology > Laws and Regulations > Land and Environmental Law
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Hanna-Liis Heinla
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2018 12:56
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2019 07:01

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