TTK Links: Home Page | TTK Moodle | ÕIS
TTK/UAS Repository For Digital Teaching and Learning Resources

Jäätmevoogude analüüs ettevõtte Nefab Packaging OÜ näitel

Tagapere, Anni (2018) Jäätmevoogude analüüs ettevõtte Nefab Packaging OÜ näitel. [thesis] [en] Analysis of the Waste Streams Based on the Example of Nefab Packaging OÜ.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (1MB)
[img] Other (lihtlitsents - bdoc) - Other
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (76kB)

Abstract

Tootmisefektiivsuse ja ettevõtte kasumlikkuse võtme teguriteks on efektiivne materjalide kasutus ning läbimõeldud jäätmekäitlus. Selle saavutamiseks on mitmeid meetmeid, nagu näiteks lean tootmispõhimõtete rakendamine, mida iga aastaga aina enam kasutusele võetakse. Ka ringmajanduse põhimõtted aitavad ettevõttel vähendamaks keskkonnamõjusid tulenevalt materjali kasutusest. Antud töö põhineb nii teoreetilisel uuringul kui ka pakenditootmisega tegeleva ettevõtte tootmisprotsessi vaatlusel, jäätmearuannete analüüsil ja intervjuudel. Jäätmevoogude analüüsimiseks kasutati kogutud andmeid ja infot ning lähtuti ka jäätmehierarhiast. Jäätmevoogude analüüsi tulemusena selgus, et kõige suurema osakaalu tekkivatest jäätmetest moodustub vineer, keskmiselt 646 tonni aastas. Antud jääde pärineb ülekaalukalt ExPaki tootmisest, keskmiselt 541 tonni aastas. Teine suurima osakaaluga jääde, mis tootmisest tekib, on sisepakkematerjali tootegrupist pörinev vahtplast. Kolmel vaadeldaval aastal keskmiselt 590 tonni. Metalli jäätmeid tekib keskmiselt 105 t/a, mis pärineb 90% ExPaki ja 10% PlyPaki tootmisest. Neljandaks on ohtliku jäätmed 41 t/a keskmiselt, mis pärinevad 80% ExPaki ja 20% PlyPaki tootmisest. Viiendaks on paberi- ja papijäätmed 98 t/a, mis pärinevad ainult papptoodete tootmisest. Kõige väiksema osakaaluga jäätmeteks on plastpakendid 6 t/a, mis tekivad kõigi viie tootegrupi puhul. Kuna puidujäätmete andmed on puudulikud, siis võib teha ainult oletusi, kui palju võis seda 2015-2016 aastal tekkida. Siit tuleb välja ka asjaolu, et kuna tegemist on pakenditootjaga, kes toodab vastavalt tellimusele, siis on väga raske leida konkreetseid seoseid jäätmevoogude ja seda mõjutavate võimalike tegurite (aastaaeg, tellija jne) vahel. Selgus, et jäätmete osas ületab tulude pool kulusid. Kui kõige suuremaks kuluks on hetkel puit ja vineerijäägid, mille käitlemine maksis 2017. aastal ettevõttele kokku ca 10 000 eurot, siis ainuüksi juba metalli müümise eest saadi ca 19 000 eurot. Üldiselt on ettevõte jäätmekorraldus hästi toimiv ning kõik jäätmed lähevad ümbertöötlusesse ning ükski jääde ei leia teed prügilasse ladestamiseks. Positivne on ka asjaolu, et ettevõte käitleb enamus värvijäätmeid ise ning samuti kasutab ettevõte hoonete kütmiseks tootmisest üle jäävat vineeri. Küll aga on arenemisruumi veel ohtlike jäätmete hoiustamisel. Tuleks võtta kasutusele ohtike jäätmete hoiustamiseks mõeldud konteiner. Puidu ja vineeri jäätmete keskkonnasõbralikumaks käitlemiseks tuleb ettevõttel kindlasti hakata koguma puhast ja töötlemata puitu ning vineeri eraldi konteinerisse. Konteineri parema täituvuse saavutamiseks oleks hetke seisuga parimaks variandiks puidupressi soetamine. See seade tagab väiksema keskkonnamõju ja rahalise kokkuhoiu läbi veo tiheduse vähenemise ja töötlemiskulutuste vähenemise.

Abstract [en]

Manufacturing and consumption processes do not only produce goods and services, but also cause manufacturing residues. Every unused part of the material is an economic cost to the company and increases the impact of the company and its products to the environment. Introduction of the best practises in the waste management and applying the principles of responsible company mitigates the pressure to the environment. The choise of the topic was based on the author's interest in researching recycling possibilities and the benefits of well-considered waste management based on an example of a manufacturing company. The goal of this thesis was to analyse waste streams generated by the industrial packaging production business. Management of the production residues was studied and also solutions were offered to improve those processes and to make them more environmental friendly. The thesis consists of six parts. The first part describes the importance of the reduction of the production waste and maximising the usage of raw material, also what measures and methods should be implemented. Based on the company, the second part gives an overview of the impact to the environment caused by packages. The third part consists of introduction of the manufacturing company and its products. The fourth part describes methodology. The fifth part is the results of the analysis and the sixth part is the outcome of the research. The result of the analysis was that all waste which are generated in the production processes are being recycled. Foam plastic waste, which was produced on average 590 tons per year in the period of 2015-2017, is recycled into granules and plastic bags can be produced from the granules. Metal waste, which was produced on average 105 tons per year over the three observed years, is processed mechanically in Estonia and the processed material is exported to Turkey. Wood waste, which was produced 159.3 tons in total in the year of 2017, is burned for energy purposes. Plywood waste, which was produced on average 646 tons per year in the period of 2015-2017, is also burned for thermal energy purposes. Hazardous waste , which was produced on average 41 tons per year over the three observed years, is cut into little pieces and it is added to the waste fuel. Cardboard waste was generated on average 98 tons and plastic packaging waste 6 tons per year in the period of 2015-2017. Both these wastes are recycled into new products. Analysing the company's waste report, it turned out that revenue exceeds costs. For example, the utilization cost of the wood waste for the company in 2017 was almost 10 000 euros, but selling the metal waste brought almost 19 000 euros in revenue. In general, the waste management of the manufacturing company works well and it is good to say that no waste that is generated by the manufacturing processes is going to landfill. The fact that the company recycles most of its paint residues itself and uses plywood left overs to produce heat, is an effective way to reduce the manufacturing impact to the environment. However, some improvements regarding the storage of hazardous waste can be made. The company should purchase a special container for collecting hazardous waste. Moreover, for more environmental friendly recycling of the wood and plywood waste, the company must collect the processed and unprocessed wood and plywood into two different containers. Also, for better filling of the container they should purchase a special machine that cuts the wood into little pieces.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Siret Talve
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Anni Tagapere
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2018 13:16
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2019 07:32
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3609

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item