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Tervishoiujäätmete käitlemine Eesti tervishoiuasutustes

Vene, Katrin (2018) Tervishoiujäätmete käitlemine Eesti tervishoiuasutustes. [thesis] [en] Health Care Waste Management in Estonian Healt Care Institutions.

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Abstract

Tervishoiuasutuste ja tervishoiuteenuste osutajate peamine eesmärk on inimeste ja loomade tervishoiu, ravimise ja hooldusega tegelemine. See tähendab puhast ja kontrollitud keskkonda, mille saavutamiseks tuleb täita teatud tingimusi. Keskkonnaministeerium on loonud Riigi jäätmekava 2014-2020 aastateks. Nimetanud jäätmekava peamiseks eesmärgiks korrastada ning korraldada jäätmehooldust süsteemselt kõigil meditsiinivaldkonna tasanditel. Arengukava ühtlustab eesmärgid riigi jaoks, seab sihid ja ülesanded kohalikele omavalitsustele, ettevõtjatele, tootjatele ja elanikkonnale. Lõputöö eesmärk oli uurida tervishoiuasutuste tervishoius tekkivate jäätmete käitlemist ja selle abil töötada välja uue tervishoiujäätmete käitlemise juhendi ettepanek. Olemasolev juhend „Riiklik juhendmaterjal. Tervishoiul tekkivate jäätmete käitlemisel“ anti välja 2001. aastal ning on vananenud. Uus juhend peaks looma ühtse turvalise keskkonna tervishoiujäätmete käitlemisel ning vähendama erinevusi tervishoiuasutustes. Eesmärgi täitmiseks külastati Eesti haiglaid, analüüsiti haiglate tervishoiujäätmetega tegelemist ja juhendmaterjale. Külastustest on tehtud kokkuvõtted, toodud välja haiglate reaalne olukord, tegevuse tugevad ja nõrgemad küljed. Eraldi on käsitletud jäätmeid, nende liigitamist, nõudeid jäätmete kogumisele, pakendamisele, hoiustamisele, mis omakorda peab aitama jäätmehierarhia paremale juhtimisele tervishoiuasutustes. Tervishoiujäätmetele lisaks käsitleti ka jäätmeid, mida tervishoiujäätmeteks ei nimetata, nendeks on pakendid, ehitusjäätmed, elektroonikajäätmed jmt. Uue tervishoiujäätmete käitlemise juhendi ettepanek sisaldab tabelitena kõiki tervishoius tekkivaid jäätmeid, ka neid, mida tervishoiujäätmeteks ei nimetata. Töö on ülesehitatud kolme peatükina, millest esimene annab ülevaate jäätmekäitlusest ja õigusaktidest, teine peatükk käsitleb tervishoius tekkivaid jäätmeid, millised on need asutused, millised jäätmed seal tekivad ning millised on kehtivad nõuded jäätmekäitlusele. Teine peatükk käsitleb tervishoiuasutusi ja tekkivaid jäätmeid ning nõudeid käitlemiseks. Kolmas peatükk käsitleb töö praktilist osa, nelja haigla jäätmekäitluse vaatlemist ning haiglate juhendite võrdlemist. Kõik töö osad on aluseks uue riikliku tervishoiujäätmete käitlemisjuhendi ettepanekule. Juhend on valminud ühistööna kahe lõputöö osana.

Abstract [en]

Waste management is getting more and more attention in every field of life. Increasingly more attention is being paid on how to avoid or minimize the generation of waste in different kinds of processes. The fast growth of population has led to a situation, where dealing with waste is inevitable. Health care institutions must ensure a safe environment for their employees and patients. The graduation thesis was completed in collaboration with Estonian Waste Management Association. Margit Rüütelmann and Marit Liivik arranged the meetings and were the main instructors outside the school. In addition, there was also a tight collaboration with the head of the environment department of Tartu University Hospital Triin Arujõe and chief specialist Tiina Teder. The visit to the North Estonia Medical Centre was conducted by Liisi Puntso, to the Pärnu Hospital by Lembit Miil and to the Järvamaa Hospital by Toomas Tippi, Maire Raidvere and Tiiu Aule The main aim of health care institutions and health care service providers is dealing with the health care and treatment of their patients. This means that they must maintain a clean and controlled environment and in order to achieve this it is necessary to fulfil certain conditions. The Ministry of the Environment has created a national waste management plan for the years of 2014-2020. The main purpose of the waste management plan is to arrange and organize waste management. The purpose of the graduation thesis was to study the waste management of the health care institutions and to help to create a proposal for a new waste management instruction. The existing national instruction material was developed by a Danish company DANCEE (Danish Cooperation for Environment in Eastern Europe) in 2001 and needs to be renewed. The new instruction should create a complete, knowledgeable and safe environment for health care waste management. The parts of the graduation thesis are a foundation of a proposal for a new national waste management instruction. The instruction has been completed as a cooperation of two graduation theses. To fulfil the objective, Estonian hospitals were visited, their health care waste management was analysed and the instructions compared. Summaries of the visits were made, bringing out the real situation in the hospitals and the positive and negative aspects of their activity. In particular, the thesis concentrates on waste, waste classifying, requirements for the collection of waste, packing and deposition, which should help to lead the waste hierarchy to a higher level in health care institutions. Besides the health care wastes, the thesis dealt with other waste types such as packages, construction waste, electronic waste etc. The proposal for a new health care waste management instruction includes the tables of all the previously mentioned waste types created in health care activities.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Monica Vilms
Co-advisor: Margit Rüütelmann
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Types of Waste and Basics of Waste Treatment
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Katrin Vene
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2018 13:27
Last Modified: 27 Aug 2019 13:13
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3599

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