TTK Links: Home Page | TTK Moodle | ÕIS
TTK/UAS Repository For Digital Teaching and Learning Resources

Korterelamu ehitustööde organiseerimine

Ülo, Prints (2017) Korterelamu ehitustööde organiseerimine. [thesis] [en] Organisation of the Construction Work of an Apartment Building.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version
Download (33MB) | Preview
[img] Other (lihtlitsents) - Other
Download (76kB)

Abstract

Lõputöö eesmärgiks oli koostada ehituse organiseerimise projekt ning selle kooseisus nii ehitusprotsessi kalendergraafik, ehitusplatsiplaan kui ka hinnanguline ehituseelarve peatöövõtu meetodist lähtuvalt. Koostatud kalendergraafikust selgub, et kui alustada objektil töödega 01.03.2017, siis ehitis valmib üheksa kuu jooksul ehk detsembri alguseks 2017. aastal. Lõputöö käigus leitud tööliste maksimaalne arv objektil on 28, kelle tarbeks on planeeritud viis soojakut. Ehituslinnakus on olemas ka mõningane varu soojakute mahutamiseks, mis võimaldaks mitme maja paralleelset ehitust. Objektil töötavate tööliste arv kasvab ehitusprotsessi käigus. Ehitusplatsiplaani kavandamise käigus selgus, et ehituslinnaku ja trasside paiknemise kohalt on ehitustegevuse korraldamine antud asukohas soodne. Ehituslinnaku saab jätta samale asukohale ka samale krundile kavandatud järgmiste elamute ehituse tarbeks. See aitab järgmiste elamute ehitusel kokku hoida ehitusplatsi ettevalmistus ja lõpetamise tööde arvelt. Objekti üld- ja korralduskulude osakaal on 12,7% objekti kogueelarvest. Selle osa vähendamine on kindlasti võimalus ehitusfirma efektiivsust suurendada. Kindlasti aitab siin kaasa ehitusaja mõningane lühendamine. Koostatud kalendergraafikule tuginedes on seda raske saavutada. Kõige suurema osakaaluga organiseerimise kuludes on insener tehnilise personali (ITP) palgad, mis moodustavad 30% ehitusplatsi üldkulust. Kõrge palgasurve tõttu hetke tööturul aitab sellel puhul töö ladusamaks muutmine, mis võimaldaks samadel inimestel hallata rohkem objekte. Lõputöö käigus selgus mõningaid ehitustegevuse parendamise võimalusi. Üheks kokkuhoiu kohaks on objekti alguperioodil tehtava töö optimeerimine, et kõik planeeritud ressursid oleks maksimaalselt ära kasutatud. Oluline osakaal on tehnosüsteemide rajamise maksumusel, mis antud objektil on 28,4%. Praktika ja vaatlused näitavad, et torustike ja juhtmestike rajamisel ei kasutata konstruktsiooni paigutatavaid õõnesdetaile ja kõrisid. Vajalikud avad tehakse hilisemas etapis. Valmis konstruktsiooni avade lõhkumine, puurimine ja saagimine on aeganõudvad ja kallid tegevused. Seetõttu peaks neid ette planeerima, et saavutada kokkuhoiu efekt. Eelmise punktiga seonduvalt peaks tellima hoonele tehnosüsteemide informatsiooni mudelid (BIM). Sellise mudeli olemasolu annaks võimaluse juba objekti algstaadiumis hinnata vajalike läbiviikude hulka ja asukohta. Üheks võimaluseks on vooltootmise juurutamine. Kuna antud krundil on plaanitud veel neli sama tüüpi elamut, siis on otstarbekas organiseerida ehitustegevus nii, et ühte tööoperatsiooni tegevad töölised teeksid sama sisuga tööd. Selliste ühetüübiliste objektide puhul on see arvestatav võimalus tööprotsessi efektiivsemaks muuta.

Abstract [en]

This project for the organisation of the construction work of an apartment building was based on the use of the prime contractor method. Resources and work scope were planned in order that the subcontractors would have all the necessary resources and would not interfere with each other’s work during the construction. In order to achieve this, a time schedule and plan for the building site have been devised. Health and safety aspects were also considered in this project because these are the prerequisites for a smooth workflow, free from interruptions caused by injuries. In addition to health and safety considerations, quality issues were assessed and an outline for a quality plan was proposed. The general waste management principles were also discussed. All the accumulated waste on the building site will be sorted by category and delivered to the waste-handling site. The project consists of an organisational plan, a time schedule for the construction works, the main plan for the building itself, and a budget estimate. The devised schedule highlights that, if the construction works started on March 1, 2017, it is possible to complete the project in nine months by the beginning of December, 2017. As the number of construction workers increases whilst the building works progress, it is more economical to optimise the work at the beginning of the process in order to maximise resources. The generic and organisational costs make up 12.7% of the project’s budget. Cutting down on these would present an opportunity to increase the construction company’s effectiveness. Decreasing the overall building time will also save costs. Based on the analysis of the composed schedule, this is, however, somewhat difficult to achieve. The biggest impact on organisational costs is wages, which make up 30% of the overall costs. Given the current pressure on the job market to pay high wages, streamlining the job processes allows that the same amount of people to work on more elements. When designing the main plan for the building site, it transpired that the location for the building campus and construction routes are advantageous, as it is possible for the building campus to remain at the same location for the construction of the next buildings on the same plot. This will help to save money in regard to the preparation and termination works. It was calculated that the maximum number of construction workers on site will be 28 and there are five temporary lodgings planned on site for them. There is also some reserve space on the building site to build more temporary lodgings, which would allow the simultaneous construction of several buildings. Several options to improve the overall construction process emerged during the writing of this project. These will be listed below. A sizeable part of the budget comprises the building of the technical systems, namely 28.4%. It has been shown in practice and via observation that often the necessary apertures are built at a later stage of construction. However, making these openings at a later stage is more expensive and time-consuming. That is why these apertures should be planned in advance to gain the economic benefits. Regarding this problem, it would be beneficial to order building information models for the technical and structural systems of the building. These models will allow the evaluation of the number and location of the building’s structural openings in advance. The third proposition concerns organising streamlined construction. Since there are four more buildings of the same type on this plot, it is more profitable to organise the construction in such a way that the construction workers involved with a specific part of the construction would be continually working on the same task. This is a good opportunity to make the construction process more effective when it comes to these types of uniform building.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Anneli Ramjalg
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Construction > Organization of construction
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Ülo Prints
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2017 12:57
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2017 12:57
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/3125

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item