TTK Links: Home Page | TTK Moodle | ÕIS
TTK/UAS Repository For Digital Teaching and Learning Resources

Luuka seafarmi tegevus ja keskkonnaprobleemid

Lindegron, Karl (2017) Luuka seafarmi tegevus ja keskkonnaprobleemid. [thesis] [en] The activities and environmental problems of Luuka pig farm..

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (779kB)
[img] Other (lihtlitsents - bdoc) - Other
Restricted to Registered users only

Download (22kB)

Abstract

Rekonstrueerimata Luuka seafarm ohustas keskkonda. Vana seafarm ei tohtinuks praeguste piirmäärade tõttu üldse eksisteerida. Puudus lekkekontroll lägahoidlasse jõudvate kanalite üle ja ka lägahoidla kindlus – need tegevused tõid kaasa ka põhjavee reostumise. Lisaks eelnevatele probleemidele võis reostusele kaasa aidata ka lägalaotamine ebasobivatel tingimustel (talvel, külmunud maa) ning ümbruskonna kaitsmata põhjavesi. Lägahoidlast sattus õhku kergemini saasteaineid, sest puudus kattematerjal. Kütte- ja energiakulud olid suured, hooned olid soojustamata ja tehnika oli vana. Antud lõputöös keskenduti vastavalt eesmärgile ja sellest lähtuvatele ülesannetele vana ja rekonstrueeritud seafarmi võrdlusele ning keskkonnaohtude analüüsile. Töö käigus selgus. Rekonstrueeritud seafarm peab täitma mitmeid ettenähtud seadusi. Oluline seakasvatusel on hoonete olukord, lägakanalite ja lägahoidlate lekkekindlus, lägalaotamise lubatud aeg, kogus ja sigade heaolu. Töös selgitati, et ehitusel on kasutatud moodsaid materjale (PVC, EPS jne). Lägahoidla on valmistatud raudbetoonist ning seafarmi juhataja hindab selle kindlust heaks. Lägakanalid on ehitatud betoonist ja olemas on kontrollkaevud, lekete tuvastamiseks. Vedelsõnnikut laotatakse vastavalt seadustele. Vaid ühel korral on ette tulnud olukord, kui läga laotati valel ajal ebasoodsate ilmatingimuste tõttu. Sigade kasvatamiseks on olemas nõuetele vastavad sulud, puhke-, söötmis- ja sõnnikuala. Sigade kasvatamist käib iga kuu kontrollimas veterinaarkontroll. Seaduse järgi on ettenähtud kontroll kord aastas, kuid Aafrika seakatku leviku tõttu viiakse kontrolli läbi iga kuu. Praeguse farmi tegevus mõjutab lähedalolevaid majapidamisi. Peamiselt häirib naabruskonda kevadel ja sügisel toimuv sõnnikuvedu. Sõnnikuvedu toob kaasa tiheda liikluse, ööpäevaringse müra, tolmu ja ebameeldiva haisu. Olukorda analüüsiti nii keskkonnakontrolli uuringute kui ka elanike ja valla keskkonnanõuniku küsitlemise abil. Seafarmi ümbruses on kaitsmata põhjavesi, see tähendab seda, et vale läga laotamisega võib põhjavett reostada. Vana seafarmi tegevuse tõttu oli üheteistkümnest küsitletust kolmel majapidamisel vesi rikutud. Põhjuseks lägahoidla lekkekontrolli puudus ja vale lägalaotamine. Ülejäänud majapidamiste kaevud võisid puutumata jääda selle tõttu, et kaevud on sügavamad. Rekonstrueeritud sigala pole inimestele palju probleeme tekitanud. Ette on tulnud mõni üksik kord, kui kurdetakse halva lõhna ning lägalaotamisel liikluses tekkiva tolmu üle. Uuendatud seafarm on keskkonnale oluliselt ohutum kui seda oli vana. Farm ei ületa tegevuses lubatud piirmäärasid ning ei häiri väga palju ümbruskonna elanikke. Keskkonnainspektsiooni sõnul ei ole rekonstrueeritud seafarmil kehtivaid rikkumisi. Seafarm annab kogukonnale vähe töökohti selle kõrge automatiseerituse tõttu. Luuka seafarmi juhataja hinnangul võiks sigala territoorium suurem olla ning panustada rohkem bio-ohutusnõuetele. Lägakanalitest tekkiv ammoniaak tuleks tema ettepanekul suunata otse õhku, et see ei jääks ruumi. Lägalaotamismasinatel peaks olema GPS-süsteem vältimaks topeltlaotamist samale kohale. Tulevikus on vaja ära vahetada söötmisliinid, sest need hakkavad amortiseeruma. Lägalaotamine võiks toimuda siis, kui pole pikka aega olnud kuiv aeg. Tiheda liiklusega tekkiv tolm häirib mitmeid majapidamisi ja pikemas perspektiivis on see tervisele kahjulik; selle probleemi lahendus oleks tee katmine asfalti või mõne muu mittetolmava materjaliga. Edaspidi vältida läga laotamist nädalavahetustel.

Abstract [en]

The activities and environmental problems of Luuka pig farm. The aim of the diploma paper is to get an overview of the construction and existence of a large pig farm before and after its reconstruction and assert the obedience to the laws and regulations. It is important to become aware of all types of legislation (water, construction, manure spreading, keeping pigs, etc.) already while planning the activity. Comparison with it enables to analyse the situation. The tasks arisen from the aim: • to get acquainted with the history of the enterprise and the possible environmental effects before reconstruction; • to get an overview on the regulatory laws and normative acts concerning the activity of a pig farming enterprise; • to analyse the labour done for reconstruction and its efficiency on the basis of the production and environmental conditions. The activity of the farm could cause environmental disturbances which would make the local residents annoyed. These questions got answered analysing audits and interrogating households and the environmental counsel of Raikküla Rural Municipality. To get a better overview on the reconstructed pig farm and the older pig farm as well, the chairman of the board was interviewed. The chairman gave a digest on construction, demands for operating a pig farm and manure management and an overview on the history of the enterprise. They were compared with the conditions given in the legislation. Before reconstruction Luuka pig farm endangered the environment. The old pig farm could not have existed at all, due to present strict requirements. There was no control over the channels taking slurry into the storage areas and there was no fortification at the storage place, which caused groundwater pollution. In addition to this, the pollution could have been also contributed by manure spreading in poor conditions (in winter, frozen ground) and unprotected groundwater of the district. The pollutants could get into the air more easily as the slurry storage area was not covered. The heating and energy costs were high, the buildings were not insulated and the technology was old. In this final thesis the author concentrated on the aim of it and the tasks proceeding from it: dealing with the comparison of the old farm with the reconstructed one and the analysis of the environmental dangers. During the research work it became apparent that the reconstructed pig farm has to follow the laws in force. It is important that the pig farming enterprise had the buildings in good order, the slurry channels and storage areas fortified; the farmers have to find the right time and quantity for slurry spreading and, of course, of no less importance is the welfare of the pigs. In the paper, it is explained that modern materials (PVC, EPS, etc.) have been used in the process of construction. The slurry store is made of ferroconcrete and the manager of the pig farm assesses its strength to be good. The slurry channels are built from concrete and there are control wells to detect leaks. Fluid manure is spread according to the laws. Only once was there a situation when the slurry was spread in a wrong time - the climatic conditions were unfavourable. To raise pigs there are pig pens, recreation, feeding and manure areas, which all meet the requirements. Once a month the pigs are examined by licensed veterinarians. According to the law the pigs must be examined once a year, but due to the spread of the African swine fever, it is done once a month. The activity of the present farm is affecting the nearby households. The people are mainly disturbed by manure spreading that takes place every spring and autumn. This activity is accompanied by heavy traffic, 24 hours' noise, dust and unbearable stink. The situation was analysed by questioning the environmental control survey, the local people and the environmental counsel of the local rural municipality. The groundwater near the pig farm is unprotected, which means that it can be polluted by wrongly spread slurry. Because of the activity of the old pig farm, three households out of eleven interrogated ones had spoilt water. The reason for that could be the lack of leak control of the slurry store and wrong slurry spreading. The wells of the rest households could remain untouched because the wells were deeper. The reconstructed pig farm has not caused many problems for the people. There have been some cases where people complain about a bad smell and the dust coming from the traffic while spreading slurry. The renewed pig farm is significantly safer for the environment than was the old one. In its activity the farm does not exceed the limits and does not disturb the dwellers nearby so much. According to the environmental inspectorate the reconstructed pig farm does not have any valid violations. The pig farm gives few workplaces to the community because of its high automation. According to the manager of Luuka pig farm the territory of the farm could be larger and they could make more contributions to biosafety requirements. He suggests that the ammonia coming from the slurry channels should be directed into the air not to let it stay in the room. The slurry spreading machines should be equipped with GPS navigation devices to avoid double spreading on the same place. In the future it is necessary to change the feeding lines because of their depreciation. The spreading of slurry should take place when there has not been a dry period for a long time. The dust springing up from the heavy traffic annoys a lot of households and in the long term perspective it can be harmful to the health; as a solution to this problem could be covering the road with asphalt or some other non-dusting material. Also the spreading of slurry should be avoided at weekends.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Viiu Sillaste
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction
Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Hydrogeology and Estonian Geology
Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Environmental Impact Assessment
Technoecology
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Karl Lindegron
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2017 13:21
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2017 13:21
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2839

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item