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Archimedese kruvi kasutamise eeluuring Kunda jõe näitel

Källo, Heiko (2017) Archimedese kruvi kasutamise eeluuring Kunda jõe näitel. [thesis] [en] Preliminary Analysis of the Use of Archimedean Screw Based on the Kunda River Example.

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Abstract

Käesolev lõputöö on archimedese kruvi kasutamise eeluuring Kunda jõe näitel. Töö käigus selgus, et archimedese kruvi tehnoloogia on Eesti jõgedel perspektiivikas. Energeetiliselt avaldub eelis väikeste vooluhulkade juures, kus tema kasutegur on suurem. Lisaväärtus kalakruvi näol annab tellijale võidu projekti tasuvuses, kuid ka kindluse kalade rände tagamisel. Eelis konkurentide ees on töötav kalakruvi lahendus, mis sobib veekeskkonda oma töökindluse ja turvalisuse poolest. Kunda jõe põhjajäätumise uuringud näitasid, et põhjajää teket aitaks muu hulgas vähendada ka ajaloolise hüdroelektrijaama tööle panemine. Hetkel puudub paisul ka kalapääs, mis peaks seadusega tagama kalade rände võimalused. Archimedese kruvi paigaldamise abil saaks lahendada kalade rände probleemi ja samuti oleks astutud samm edasi põhjajäätumise vähendamise suunas. Riigil on plaanis paljude sarnaste paisude lammutamine. Lammutamine ei oleks kompromiss ja see ei lahendaks ühtegi probleemi, mis on tänasel päeval aktuaalsed seoses Kunda jõega. Põhjajäätumine muutuks hullemaks, sest jõest jääks järgi ainult vee nire. Samuti on ajaloost teada, et 100%-list kalapääsu pole kunagi vana HEJ paisu asukohas olnud, sest elektrijaam ehitati Kunda jõe alamjooksu 9,3 m suuruse loodusliku langusega lõigule, mis oli juba enne paisu rajamist paljude kala liikide jaoks läbimatu. Hoopis mõistlikum oleks antud olukorras kasutada archimedese kalakruvi, mis tagaks 100%-lise, turvalise kalapääsu igas mõõdus kaladele. Töös leiti, et archimedese kruvi edukaks kasutamiseks Eesti jõgedel tuleks teha järgmised sammud riigil, kes peaks esmalt üle vaatama oma seisukohad paisude suhtes. Kui otsustatakse, et archimedese kruvi on mõistlikum lahendus kui lammutamine, siis saab erasektor teemaga edasi tegeleda. Sisulisemaks põhjajäätumise uuringuteks saaks rajada põhjajäätumise jaama Kunda jõele. Täiustada tuleks uurimise metoodikat ja uuringute tegemisel kasutada täpsemaid instrumente.

Abstract [en]

Preliminary Analysis of the Use of Archimedean Screw Based on the Kunda River Example The topic of this graduation thesis is preliminary study of the use of Archimedean screw in the Kunda River. The thesis revealed that Archimedean screw technology has a lot of potential to be productive in Estonian rivers. The energetic advantage of Archimedean screw becomes obvious at low river flows where the efficiency ratio is the highest compared to the competitors. Added value in the form of a fish screw gives an edge in project payoff period and ensures successful fish migration. The advantage over the competitors is a working fish screw solution that fits the aquatic environment for its reliability and safety. Anchor ice research revealed that re-operating of the historical hydro energy plant would reduce anchor ice formation. At the moment there is no fish pass, which should ensure fish migration by law, on the dam. Installing of the Archimedes screw could solve the problem of fish migration, and also would be a step forward towards reducing anchor ice formation. Although it must be admitted that in this situation things are more complicated because the government has demolition plans concerning a lot of similar dams. Demolition would not be a compromise, and it would not solve any of the topical problems in the Kunda River. Anchor ice formation would turn worse because there would be only a rill instead of the river. It is a historical fact that the old hydro-electric power plant area never had 100% fish pass. The plant was constructed on the Kunda River area where the natural decline is 9.3 meters. Under the circumstances, it would be more sensible to use the Archimedean fish screw, which would guarantee an absolutely secure access for the fish of all sizes. The research showed that for the successful use of the Archimedean screw in Estonian rivers the following steps must be taken by the government. First, the standpoint regarding the dam should be reviewed. If it is decided that the Archimedes screw will be a more sensible solution than demolition, the private sector can continue dealing with the issue. In order to study the anchor ice formation process more substantially, an anchor ice station can be built in the Kunda River. It would make it possible to improve research methodology, and implement better instruments in further studies.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Lember Erki
Subjects: Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Hydrogeology and Estonian Geology
Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Environmental Monitoring
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Heiko Källo
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2017 13:11
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2017 13:11
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2800

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