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Jaotusvedude simulatsioon AS Smarten Logistics näitel

Lisitski, Jaan (2017) Jaotusvedude simulatsioon AS Smarten Logistics näitel. [thesis] [en] Simulation of Smarten Logistics PLC Delivery Routes.

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Abstract

Käesolevas töös uuritavaks probleemiks on ettevõtte AS Smarten Logistics kaubikute jaotusvedude planeerimise puudumine. Eesmärgiks on läbi veoplaaniga jaotusvedude simulatsiooni langetada veoteenuste hinda. Simulatsioon annab vastust uurimisküsimustele kas jaotusvedude planeerimise rakendamine viib veoteenuse hinna vähendamiseni, milline saab olla kokkuhoiu määr ning kui suure kokkuhoiuni on võimalik jõuda läbi terminalis pealelaadimise protsessi kiirendamise. Töö koosneb kolmest osast, millest esimeses kahes tehakse vajalikke ettevalmistusi simulatsiooni teostamiseks ja kolmandas teostatakse simulatsiooni ennast. Töö esimeses osas kirjeldatakse kolmanda osapoole logistika valdkonnas tegutseva AS Smarten Logistics tegevusi ja protsesse ning kirjeldatakse teoreetilisi kontseptsioone millele töös toetutakse. Nendeks kontseptsioonideks on kirjeldav statistika, mida kasutatakse ettevõtte jaotussüsteemi analüüsiks ja selle kvantitatiivse mudeli loomiseks. Samuti oluline on simulatsioonianalüüsi põhimõte, mis seisneb lühidalt kokkuvõttes selles, et selle abil imiteeritakse tegelikkuses eksisteeriva nähtuse (milleks on antud töös ettevõtte AS Smarten Logistics kaubikute jaotusvedude süsteem) käitumist hüpoteetilises olukorras. Viimaseks teoreetiliseks aluseks on sõiduki marsruudi valiku probleem (Vehicle Routing Problem), mille uurimine kuulub matemaatilise optimeerimise valdkonda, kuid on suunatud logistiliste transpordiülesannete lahendamisele. Töö teises osas luuakse kirjeldava statistika abil ettevõtte AS Smarten Logistics jaotusvedude kvantitatiivse mudeli, milles on kirjeldatud perioodil detsember 2016 ja jaanuar 2017 kaubavoog kuude, nädalate ja nädalapäevade lõikes, jaotusringe sooritanud autode täituvusastmed ja jaotusringide ajakulu. Töö kolmandas osas kõigepealt valitakse sobiva vedude planeerimise tarkvara, mis on loodud sõiduki marsruudi valiku probleemi lahendamiseks. Seejärel kvantitatiivse analüüsi tulemusena loodud mudelile rakendatakse tarkvaraga loodud veoplaani ja simuleeritakse jaotusringide sooritust 47 uutes tingimustes. Lisaks kalibreeritakse esialgset mudelit muutes terminalis pealelaadimise ajakulu väärtuse muutmisega ja teostatakse teine simulatsioon kalibreeritud jaotusvedude mudeliga. Simulatsiooni tulemusena on saavutatud olulist kulusäästu. Esimese simulatsiooni tulemusena on vähendatud veoteenuse hinda erinevate tööpäevade kohta ulatuses 2% kuni 16%. Teise simulatsiooni tulemuseks on hinnavõit 10% kuni 20%. Töö käigus on jõutud järeldusteni, et ettevõttel AS Smarten Logistics on otstarbekas viivitamatult algatada kaubikute vedude planeerimise rakendamise projekti. Kuna ettevõttes on juba rakendatud tagaluugiga jaotusautode vedude planeerimine, siis efektiivsete tulemuste nimel tuleb mõlema veovahendi vedusid planeerida ühise protsessi käigus. Samuti on tehtud selge järeldus, et terminalis pealelaadimisele kulutatud aja vähendamisega saavutatakse veel suuremat kulusäästu kui ainult vedude planeerimise rakendamisega. Lisaks on jõutud arusaamani, et käesolevas töös kasutatud planeerimise tarkvara ei ole täiel määral sobilik igapäevase rutiinse töö tegemiseks.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this case study is to reduce the transportation services’ cost by simulating vans’ delivery routes of 3PL company Smarten Logistics PLC. The company is one of the largest 3PL solutions’ providers in Estonia and uses fleets of different types of vehicles for its day-to-day deliveries. Lorries’ routes are preliminarily planned on a daily basis while vans’ are not. This research is conducted in order to solve that problem. The following questions are meant to be answered by this case study:  Would introducing of vans’ routes’ daily planning routine reduce the cost of transportation services?  How much would the cost of transportation services by introducing of this new process?  How much would be reduced the transportation services’ cost by shortening the time spent on loading cargo in the terminal? Delivery fleets do not belong to the company but to the subcontractors who are paid on an hourly basis. Thus the cost of transportation services could only be reduced by shortening the time spent on deliveries. First of all author creates the quantitative model of van’s delivery system. This is done by analysing the real-life deliveries which occurred in December 2016 and January 2017. Statistical analysis methods are used for this purpose. As result a detailed model which characterizes the cargo flow, capacity usage efficency factor and time expenditure is created. After that the appropriate route planning software is being chosen which ends the neccessary preparations. Simulation is being conducted by applying the route plan to the deliveries’ model created previously. 49 Since the route schedule does not make any impact on time spent on loading cargo in the terminal, the initial model is calibrated by manually reducing the values of this indicator. After that the second simultaion is conducted. Simulations imitate the real-life delivieries which occured on four days in December 2016 and January 2017 in hypothetical circumstances. Two days from each month are selected for simulatuibs. Two days represent relatively easy days with less cargo to delivere while two represent realtively difficult days with large workload. As a result the first simulation returned 2% to 16% reduction of transportation services’ costs. The second simulation returned 10% to 20% cut in expenditures. It appears that days with lesser workload indicated more significant saves than days with larger workload in the first simulation. Meanwhile shortening the time spent on loading procedures in the terminal provides the considerable level of reduced costs irrespectively of workload. It was not the purpose of this study but it clarified during the simulation that planning the routes also brings more even distribution of working time among the drivers. Each driver’s specific harmonic mean of time expenditures is applied to estimate the scheduled route duration which means that planning the routes with knowledge of each driver’s ability would return less under- or overworked subcontractors. Therefore Smarten Logistics PLC is strongly adviced to immediately start the project of introduction of vans’ delivery planning routine to its daily activities. Since the planning software used in this study is not appropriate for a daily work it is also adviced to find out the way of finding better technical solution. Since another fleet of vehicles is already being scheduled on a daily basis it would be reasonable to merge these two processes. Finally it also adviced to explore the possibilities of reducing of loading time since it would be all means beneficial.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Jelizaveta Janno
Subjects: Transport > Logistics > Logistics and supply chain management > Transport systems and forwarding
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Jaan Lisitski
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2017 12:07
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2017 12:07
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2690

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