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Tagastuslogistika kulude vähendamine Estiko – Plastar AS-i näitel

Hoole, Joosep (2017) Tagastuslogistika kulude vähendamine Estiko – Plastar AS-i näitel. [thesis] [en] Reducing Reverse Logistics Expenses based on Estiko – Plastar AS Example.

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Abstract

Estiko – Plastar AS on plastikpakendite tootmisettevõte, kes on seadnud prioriteedi toidupakendite tootmisele. Lõputöö tegemise ajendiks oli ettevõttele primaarse toorme sisseostuhinna pidev kasv, mis avaldab survet toodete omahinna tõusule ning kahjuks konkurentsitingimustest tulenevalt ei tule toodete müügihinnad omahinna tõusuga kaasa. Autor vaatles töö käigus Estiko – Plastar AS-i tagastuslogistika teekonda. Tehases töötab viis ekstruuderit, millede juurest kogutakse jäätmed lattu ja transporditakse partneri juurde ümber-töötlemiseks. Seni toimivas toorme tagastuslogistikas on oluline roll sisseostetava teenuse hinnal. Sisseostetava teenuse hind on oluline sisend tasuvuse võrdlusanalüüsis. Küsitluse käigus saadud info põhjal võib öelda, et tootja on valinud madalaima hinnaga teenuse – 1 €/kg. Töö autor tegi järeldused, et miinused sellise tagastuslogistika teekonna puhul on segunevad jäätmed, kulutatud aeg pakendamisele ja hoiuruumi vajadus transpordiks sobiva koguse saamiseks. Tootmismahud on aastas üle 10 000 tonni, millest aastal 2016 tekkis ümbertöödeldavaid jäätmeid 411 tonni. Toidupakendi jäätmed peavad olema töödeldud hügieenilises keskkonnas ning erinevate keemiliste koostistega jäägid ei tohi omavahel seguneda. Kui need tingimused pole täidetud, saab jääkidest ümber töödelda madalama kvaliteediga regranulaati, millest saab toota ainult madalama hinnaga plastikut, näiteks prügikotte. Kõrgema hinnaga toote sisendtoore peab seega vastama kõrgetele normidele, mis on toiduainete pakendite tootmise eelduseks. Töö autor, jälgides tootmisprotsessi ja võttes arvesse tagastuslogistika teoreetilist käsitlust, järeldas, et kõige optimaalsem on jäätmeid töödelda nende tekkekohas ehk siis ekstruuderite vahetus läheduses. Sobiva tehnilise lahenduse leidmise eelduseks peavad olema täidetud järgmised tingimused: logistilise teekonna vähendamine (ümbertöötlemismasin ekstruuderi kõrval), jäätmete omavahelise segunemise takistamine (tagab ISO standarditest tulenevate nõuete täitmise, tagab kõrgema hinnaga toorme kvaliteedi). Neid tingimusi täites väheneb tagastuslogistika teekond ning annab ajalise ja ressursikokkuhoiu eelise. Kahte erineva tootja ja jäätmetöötlemise võimekusega masinat omavahel võrreldes, valis autor välja seadme, mis vastas autori poolt püstitatud tingimustele. Autor arvestas tekkivate jäätmete hulka ning järeldas, et on vaja soetada igale ekstruudermasinale oma jäätmete ümbertöötlemise seade ning need paigaldada ekstruudermasinate vahetuslähedusse. Oluline oli leida jäätmete tekkekohas ümbertöötlemise regranulaadi omahind, milleks oli 0,3 €/kg. Kui võrrelda sisseostetava teenuse hinda ühiku kohta, mis on 1 €/kg, siis see on oluliselt kõrgem, kui ise tekkekohas jäätmeid ümber töödeldes. Autor teostas viiele masinale tasuvusanalüüsi. Analüüsist järeldus, et tehtav investeering tasus end juba aasta möödudes. Seega optimaalseim oleks autoripoolne ettepanek – võtta tootjal kaalumise alla viie regranuleerimisseadme soetamine. Sellega lüheneb oluliselt tagastuslogistika teekond ning on võimalik jäätmete ümbertöötlemise teostamine madalama kuluga. See vähendab ka oluliselt survet tõsta toodete omahinda. Kui palju see väheneks, oleks järgnevate analüüside ülesandeks, kuid see pole antud töö eesmärk. Kuigi tootja põhitegevus on plastiktoodete tootmine, mitte jäätmete ümbertöötlemine, siis töös tehtud ettepanekule neid ise tekkekohas ümber töödelda, saab vähendada primaarse toorme sisseostukulusid (1,5 – 1,7 €/kg), millega tugevneb konkurentsieelis. Samuti on jäätmete ümbertöötlemine toormeks ressursside kokkuhoid ning see tugevdab tootja kui keskkonda hoidva ettevõtte kuvandit.

Abstract [en]

The following thesis Reducing Reverse Logistics Expenses based on Estiko – Plastar AS Example concerns a theme that is common to manufacturers – reverse logistics. Which in the company that is mostly based on outsourcing. In business where there is intense competition, it is very important to achieve an advantage over competitors. Companies which are involved in production must pay attention to save on expenses and keep self-costs low. When you plan your expenses properly, you can reduce your costs. Outsourcing is becoming more and more popular every day because in the production process it is possible to affect profit more via obtaining savings by reducing your costs on purchases than to improve other costs. In the author’s opinion, though, it does not give any reason not to evaluate the efficiency of the outsource after some time. Reverse logistics as a concept came into waste management relatively recently. It has become an issue because of the mass consumption which has led to mass production through which there are now a dangerous amount of waste products. If a manufacturer uses its own waste for reverse movement back to raw materials, then he makes a major step in keeping the environment safe. Such planned activities lead to economic benefits – primary costs of buying raw materials will be reduced. In this thesis, it was important to address two aspects – outsourcing and reverse logistics as a whole on AS Estiko Plastar example. A manufacturer’s main objective is the production of packaging, and recycling waste into raw material as an outsourced service. The company’s problem is the steady increase in the purchase price of the primary raw material which has a direct effect on pressuring self-cost to rise. Unfortunately, due to competitive conditions, it is not possible to raise the price of product. Therefore, it is essential to find a way of keeping self-cost in place, or even lower them. The author found that the used products reverse logistics are not solved in a best way. This pointed out the need to do research on how to lower the expenses in the reverse logistics area and whether it is economically efficient to outsource the service. In other words they needed to find out how to keep costs low on waste recycling. The author used case analysis mixed with a quantitative research method to fulfill the purpose of the thesis. He also used secondary data of waste amounts and the outsource price from the manufacturer. Primary data was collected, studying the possibilities and prices of recycling raw material waste in Estonia and choosing a suitable technical solution for the web environment. The profitably suitable technical solutions were analyzed based on ratios. The analysis was obtained by comparing two things: the cost of outsourcing reverse logistics, and the cost of the unused waste products. AS Estiko Plastar is a leading manufacturer in production of packages in the Baltic States. Production volumes are over 10, 000 tons per year, which in 2016 developed recyclable waste of 411 tons. The waste must be processed in a hygienic environment, and residues with different chemical compositions cannot be mixed with each other. If these conditions are not met, the residues can be recycled into lower quality regranulate from which can only be produced plastics with lower price, such as garbage bags. In other words, the higher-priced primary product has to meet higher standards which is a prerequisite for the production of food packaging. There are five extruders working in the factory from which the waste is collected to the warehouse and transported to the recycling partner. The author concluded that disadvantages of this kind of reverse logistics journey are mixed wastes, time wasted on packaging, and the need of a storeroom for collecting the suitable amount for transport (Diagram 5). The time spent on transportation is marginal because it can be outsourced from the factory’s immediate vicinity. In effective product reversed logistics, the cost of purchased services play an important role. The cost of an outsourced service is an important entry to the analysis of profitability comparison. Based on the information collected in the survey, it can be concluded that the manufacturer has opted for the service with the lowest price - € 1/kg. The author, by observing the production process and considering the theory of reversed logistics, concluded that the most optimal approach is to process the waste at the place it is created, in other words, in the immediate vicinity of extruders. The author concluded, that to find the suitable solution, it is essential to fulfill the following conditions: reducing of logistics route (having the recycling machine near the extruder), and preventing mixed wastes (ensures the requirements the ISO standard provides are met, ensures the higher quality of raw material). When all these conditions are met, the reverse logistics route is decreased and it is possible to save time and resources (Diagram 6). An investment which is made into the suitable technical solution needs a cost-benefit analysis. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the investment made pays off as early as a year. It was very important to find the self-cost of the regranluate at the place the waste was formed. The price was € 0.3/kg. In comparison to the outsourced service price per unit, which is € 1/kg, it is significantly higher than to recycle on your own in the place the waste was created. The author’s proposal to the manufacturer would be to consider buying less than five regranulating devices. This would significantly reduce the route of the reverse logistics and would process the waste with a lower cost. This would also significantly reduce the pressure to increase the self-cost of the products. The answer how much would be given by the following functions, but it was not the purpose of the presented thesis. Although the manufacturer’s main objective is the production of plastic products, not the recycling of waste, the proposal made in this thesis to recycle waste in the place it is created can reduce the costs of the primary products purchased. In turn, this would strengthen competitive advantages. Additionally, recycling the waste into raw material is saving resources while saving the environment, which would strengthen the image of the manufacturer.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Inga Stelmak
Subjects: Transport > Logistics > Logistics and supply chain management > Reverse logistics
Divisions: Institute of Logistics > Transport and Logistics
Depositing User: Joosep Hoole
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2017 10:36
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2017 10:36
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2644

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