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Teede seisukord Jõgeva vallas, nendel esinevad probleemid ning võimalused olemasoleva olukorra parandamiseks

Auksmaa, Oliver (2016) Teede seisukord Jõgeva vallas, nendel esinevad probleemid ning võimalused olemasoleva olukorra parandamiseks. [thesis] [en] The Situation of Roads in Jõgeva Parish, the Occurring Problems, and Solutions Available to Improve the Situation.

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Abstract

Jõgeva valla teede seisukord määrab suuresti piirkonna arengu võimalused. Hetkeline rahastus riigi poolt jätab soovida ning seetõttu ei oma kohalik omavalitsus piisavalt resursse, et tagada enamjaolt teede hea seisukord. Selgelt enamike teede seisukord on rahuldav ning hooajast tulenevalt kohati ka halb. Oma töös uurisin Jõgeva valla teede suuremaid probleeme. Suurim tajutav probleem on kulumiskihi seisukord. Kruusateed on enamjaolt auklikud. Märgadel perioodidel on kate väga pehme ja mõnes üksikus kohas oli tee sõiduautoga lausa läbimatu. Asfaltteede seisund on selle koha pealt tunduvalt parem. Siiski leidub ka kattega teid, mille pealiskiht on auklik või ebatasane. Konarlik tee hoiab lohkudes vett, mis kiirendab lagunemisprotsessi. Peamine probleem, miks tekivad erinevad defektid teedel tuleneb pehmetest kihtidest. Need omakorda tekivad puuduliku drenaaži tõttu. Halva vete ärajuhtimist põhjustavad liiga väike põikkalle, mida õnneks Jõgeva valla teedel eriti ei esinenud. Kruusateedel takistasid vete äravoolu tihti vallid tee äärtel. Kraavide puhastamine koos truupidega on mõneti jäänud tagapaanile ja kohati nende üleüldine puudumine raskendab vee äravoolu. Olukorra parandamise jaoks pakkusin välja mitmeid erinevaid mooduseid. Kruusateede vete ära juhtimine on halb isegi juhul, kui on tagatud piisavad põikkalded ja kraavid. Kuna märgadel perioodidel imab katteta tee siiski teatud määral vett, muutes selle pehmeks ja tulemuseks on auklikud teed. Kvaliteetselt pinnatud kruusatee tagab sujuvama ja ohutuma sõidu, mille eluiga on palju pikem võrreldes katteta teega. Muutes majapidamiste ümbruses kruusateed tulmuvabaks, tõstab see oluliselt õhu kvaliteeti. Ebatasaste asfaltteede pindamistel tuleb kasutada profileerivet kihti, et pindamistööde ajal ei jäljendataks ebatasast profiili. Teede seisukorra pidevaks ülevaataks peaks looma mitme valla peale ühtse isiku, kes omab vastavat haridust. Ametikoha eesmärk oleks oma piirkonna teede kohta omada põhjalikku ülevaadet ja kavandada vajalikud tööd, et olukorda parandada. Inimeste meelelahutuse ja sportimisvõimaluste arendamiseks on mõistlik ehitada jalg- ja jalgratta- tee Jõgeva linnast Kuremaa alevikku. Kergliiklustee ehituseks on võimalik taotleda rahastamist EASist, kui suudetakse täita vastavad nõuded. Võrreldes riigimaanteedega on kohalikud teed alarahastatud, kuigi viimaste kogupikkus on 1,4 korda suurem. Et vallad suudaks korralikult teid hooldada, tuleks suurendada valdade vahel jagatavat resurssi võrreldes varasemaga vähemalt 5%. Kohalike omavalitsuste teede rahastamine käib teepikkuste järgi, ning et raha juurde saada, on kasulik võtta mõningaid erateid enda hoole alla.

Abstract [en]

For continuous developments and new opportunities, it is necessary for people to have roads. Without roads neither commerce, education nor medical systems would be able to function. For people living in rural areas, the quality of the road is vital because all the necessary services are located far from each other and you have to use different vehicles to reach them. This means that for safe and fast travel the roads must have sufficient quality. The subject of this bachelor thesis was selected because of the wildly spread belief that the local roads are underfunded when compared to the national highways and are therefore in 'sufficient enough' state. When you compare the budgets of local and national roads and divide them with their overall length then local municipalities are in a great deficit. It is necessary to find ways how municipalities could have higher maintenance level because the living environment of the local area depends on it. The goal is to upgrade the quality of local roads from sufficient to good. Methods used in this thesis can be re-used to evaluate and to improve the quality of any kind of local roads. With this thesis, I will give an overview of the current state and most common problems of the roads of Jõgeva parish. I will suggest my own solutions on how to improve the situation and how to change the financing system. During the creation of this thesis, I communicated with various parties responsible the roads of Jõgeva parish. To get a better understanding of the situation I personally traveled trough most of the roads. This thesis inspects the most important problems of the roads of Jõgeva parish. The most perceptible problem is the wearing condition of the road. Gravel roads are mostly bumpy and on wet seasons with a very soft top layer and in some places even impassable. On that point, the tarmac roads are in a much better condition, but still, there are paved roads where the overlay is uneven or bumpy. Those bumpy roads gather water into their hollows wich speeds up the overall decaying process. Most of the defects of the roads are caused by soft layers of the road that come up because the inadequate drainage wich is caused by insufficient perpendicular slope or cant. Luckily, the insufficient cant was not a common defect of the roads in Jõgeva parish. For the gravel roads, the bad drainage was mostly caused by the ramparts of the road. The cleaning of ditches and culverts has been a low priority and in some cases, the lack of them causes serious drainage issues. To improve the situation I offered several solutions. The drainage of gravel roads will be insufficient even if we would fix problems of the cant and ditches. The road will absorb quite a lot of water on wet season and this alone will turn the roads soft and bumpy. Quality plated gravel road offers a smoother and safer ride for vehicles and it lasts longer than an unplated road. Turning the roads around residential areas dust free improves the quality of air significantly. When plating an uneven tarmac surface a beading layer should be used to be sure that the new plating would not align itself according to the uneven surface. To monitor the situation of the roads, surrounding parishes should employ someone that has the sufficient professional knowledge. The purpose of that position would be to give extensive overview and plan for pre-emptive necessary works to improve the situation. For the further development of leisure and sporting facilities, it would be wise to build foot and bicycle paths from the city of Jõgeva to the Kuremaa borough. To build the pedestrian roads it is possible to apply for financing from Enterprise Estonia. When compared to national roads the local roads are underfunded even tough the length of the roads is 1,4 times longer. For parishes to maintain a good maintenance level it is advisable to increase the number of shared resources by at least 5%. The financing of local roads is based on the length of them, so to get more financing I would recommend taking up the maintenance of some private roads in the parish.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Meelis Toome
Subjects: Construction > Road Construction > Road building > Road maintenance
Construction > Road Construction > Road building > Road building work
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Road Construction
Depositing User: Oliver Auksmaa
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2016 08:53
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2016 08:53
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2402

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