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Tööjõuvajadus lõputööde põhjal

Limberg, Martin (2016) Tööjõuvajadus lõputööde põhjal. [thesis] [en] The Employment Needs in The Estonian Counstruction Market Based on Students’ Graduation Theses.

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Abstract

Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkooli ja Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli lõputööde uurimise tulemusena selgus, et Eesti ehitusturul on ehitusspetsialiste seas ebasoodne osakaal. Antud tööde põhjal saadud oskustööliste osakaalud on reaalses tööelus olevatest erinevad. Analüüsi tulemusena selgus, et kivi- ja betoonkonstruktsioonide ehitajaid on liiga palju ning suurem puudus on puuseppadest. Mõne võrra väiksem on ehitusviimistlejate defitsiit. Keskkonnatehnika lukkseppasid on tulemuste põhjal vastavalt vajadusele. Kutsekooli lõpetanute arv antud lõputöö põhjal on vastavusse viimata reaalse tööjõuvajadusega. Tuli välja, et õpetatakse liiga palju ehitusviimistlejaid. Nende arvelt koolitatakse vähe puuseppasid, keskkonnatehnika lukkseppasid ja kivi-, ning betoonkonstruktsioonide ehitajaid. Väga madalale on langenud puuseppade osakaal. Lõputöö sissejuhatuses esitatud kahtlus kutsekoolide läbi mõtlemata hulga spetsialistide koolitamise osas osutus antud uuringu põhjal tõeks. Kuna lõputööde põhjal leitud osakaalusid ei saa väikese valimi tõttu piisavalt tõeseks pidada, siis tuleks läbi viia ehitustööliste kaarditamine ehitusobjektidel. Nii on võimalik saada reaalne tööliste üldine osakaal elamute ehitamisel. Nende tulemuste põhjal saab määrata kutsekoolidest tulevate spetsialistide arvu vastavalt erialale. Ehitustööliste kaardistamiseks on võimalus kasutada ehituserialadel õppivaid noori, keda saata vaatluspraktikale ettevõtetesse, kus üheks ülesandeks oleks üles märkida tööliste amet, töö ning arv vastavalt lõputöös kirjeldatud metoodikale. Teine variant on statistika koostajate ning ettevõtete vahelise koostööna kasutada väravasüsteeme, kus fikseeritakse tööliste sisenemine ning väljumine objektilt. Kolmas variant on nõuda uuritavate objektide alltöövõtjatelt igapäevase ehituspäeviku täitmist, kus rõhku panna tööliste arvule ning nende poolt tehtud tööle. Kuna EKI küsitluse põhjal selgus ettevõtete rahulolematus kutsekoolist tulevate õpilaste kohta, siis lõputöö autori üheks antud probleemi parandamise ideeks on suurem koostöö ehitusfirmade ning koolide vahel. Nii on ettevõtetel võimalus individuaalselt teatud õpilastega varakult koostööd teha. Hetke olukord näitab seda, et firmad eeldavad õpilastelt tööle tulles kohest valmisolekut, mis on liiga optimistlik, kuna ettevõtted, nende kultuur, arusaamad on erinevad ning kutsekoolid kõigi eripäradega arvestada ei saa. Kutsekoolide kvaliteedi tõstmiseks tuleks pöörata suuremat rõhku kutsehariduse reklaamimisele. Kutseõppeasutused ning nende reklaamimine tuleks atraktiivsemaks muuta. Kui antud idee realiseeruks ning vähemalgi määral huvilisi juurde tooks, suureneks konkurents ning seeläbi ka ehitusspetsialistide kvaliteet. Lisaks pakkus autor välja kaaluda kutseõppeasutuste rahastamissüsteemi muutmist õppijate arvu asemel tulemuspõhiseks.

Abstract [en]

Recently a lot of discussion has been going on about the employment needs in the Estonian construction market. Estonian Association of Construction Entrepreneurs has turned to TTK University of Applied Sciences with a request to study the employment needs of the Estonian construction market based on students’ graduation theses. The purpose of the current thesis it to assess the assumption that the training of different construction specialists in the Estonian vocational education institutions is rather random, and focused more on quantity than quality. In addition, the author of the current thesis will demonstrate on the basis on graduation theses, the possibilities of gathering statistics and analysis data in the future. One of the goals of the author was also to bring out ideas of how to map workers on construction sites, and suggest solutions to help vocational studies to be more similar to actual working life. The study on the graduation theses from Tallinn University of Technology and TTK University of Applied Sciences showed that there is an unbalanced share of construction workers in the Estonian construction industry. The analysis of the theses showed that there are too many builders of stone- and concrete structures, and that there is a lack of carpenters. The deficit of finishers is a little lower. The number of plumbers is matching to the needs of the employment market. According to the author of the thesis, the number of vocational school graduates is not balanced to the needs of employment market. It turned out that too many finishers are being trained, and more carpenters, plumbers and builders of stone- and concrete structures could be trained instead. The share of carpenters has been falling drastically. Therefore, proof was found to the hypothesis about the process of training specialists being quite random. As the data from the small selection based on the studies of graduation theses cannot be considered fully representative, the mapping of construction workers should be done at construction sites. This would enable to get the real share of construction workers building living quarters. The acquired data would help determine the need for specialists graduating from vocational schools according to speciality. To map the construction workers, students of construction specialities could be used, who could gather the data about the job and tasks of the workers according to the methodology described in the current thesis, in the process of their observation traineeship. Another option is to use gate systems fixing the entrance and exit of the workers to and from the construction site, in cooperation with the data gatherers and construction enterprises. The third possibility is to demand the subcontractors to fill in daily construction reports, especially about the number and tasks of the construction workers. As the Eesti Konjuktuuriinstituut questionnaire showed dissatisfaction with the students graduating from vocational schools, the author of the thesis suggests the cooperation between the construction enterprises and schools should be strengthened. This would enable the construction firms to engage students in the early stages of their education. The current situation shows that the firms presuppose students to be ready for working life just after graduation, which is too optimistic, as the enterprises, their working culture and understandings are different and the vocational schools cannot take all these differences into account in the course of studies. In order to raise the quality of education in vocational institutions, more attention should be paid on the advertising of vocational education, and the education given by vocational institutions should be made more attractive. When this idea would be realized, the number of people interested in vocational education and the competition to student places would increase, which would improve the quality of education of construction specialists. In addition, the author also suggests the idea to change the funding system of vocational institutions – instead of funding according to student numbers, the funding could be based on performance.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Pille Hamburg
Co-advisor: Enn Tammaru
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Construction economics
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Martin Limberg
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2016 11:30
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2016 11:30
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2330

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