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Autohoolduses kasutatavate kemikaalide oht keskkonnale ja töötajatele

Karhu, Sten (2016) Autohoolduses kasutatavate kemikaalide oht keskkonnale ja töötajatele. [thesis] [en] Dangers Facing the Environment and Employees from Using Chemicals in Car Maintenance.

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Abstract

Autosid liikleb Eesti tänavatel väga palju ning autod vajavad hooldust, sealhulgas pesemist. Üks selleks võimaluseks on kasutada käsipesulaid. Lõputöö andmete saamiseks uuriti kolme käsipesulat, kahte Tallinnas ja ühte Kohilas. Koostatud testidele vastasid ettevõtete juhid. Lisaks analüüsiti ka kemikaalide ohutuskaarte, uuriti ka seadusandlust. Lõputöö eesmärk, saada vastused sissejuhatuses püstitatud küsimustele, saavutati. Testi küsimustele vastas kolm ettevõtet, neist selgusid teostatavate tööde loetelu, tööde mahud, kasutatavad tooted ja neis sisalduvad kemikaalid. Töö ülesanne selgitada välja nende ohtlikkus inimestele ja keskkonnale realiseeriti ohutuskaartide analüüsi tulemusel. Parema ülevaate saamiseks tulemused koondati tabelitesse, kusjuures erinevate tööoperatsioonide (salongipesu, välispesu jt.) kemikaale, ohutusküsimusi käsitleti eraldi. Sellega saavutati tööoperatsioonil kasutatavatest kemikaalidest parem ülevaade ja ka täpsem ohtude kirjeldus. Käsipesualates on põhiliselt viis tööprotseduuri – välispesu, sisepesu, mootoripesu, poleerimine ja vahatamine. Nende protseduuride läbiviimiseks kasutatakse erinevaid aineid, mis sisaldavad ohtlike kemikaale. Kokku uuriti 11 erinevat toodet nende ohutuskaartide põhjal. Toodete sees oli kümneid erineva ohtlikusega kemikaale. Erinevates pesulates kasutatakse sarnaseid tooteid. Kõige rohkem tellitakse välipesu, mis võis küündida üle 90% tehtavatest töödest. Järgmisena salongipesusid ning teisi protseduure tehakse väga vähe. Kõige enam ainetest kasutatakse pigieemaldus vahendit, mida telliti kuni pool tonni aastas. Autopesulates kasutatakse kõige rohkem vett, mida võib ühele autole minna kuni 260 l. See vesi ei ole enam puhas. Enamus kemikaale on ohtlikud nii keskkonnale kui ka töötajatele. Töötajad, kellel on otsene kokkupuude kemikaalidega, peavad olema väga ettevaatlikud. Kemikaalid on ohtlikud sisse-hingamisel, alla-neelamisel, kokkupuutel nahaga ja silma sattumisel. Koostatud tabelid annavad selle kohta ülevaate. Töötajad peavad kasutama olenevalt tööprotseduurist erinevaid isikukaitsevahendeid – prille, respiraatorit/maski, kaitsekindaid kaitseriideid ja jalanõusid. Oluline on ka korralik ventilatsioon, et töötaja ohtlikke aineid organismi ei hingaks. Ohtlike ainete kogumiseks kasutatakse õli ja liivapüüdureid, mis koguvad/millesse kogutakse kõik soovimatu. Suurtesse anumatesse kogutakse kokku pesuveed, mida tühjendatakse regulaarselt ning viiakse töötlemisse. Ained ja neis sisalduvad kemikaalid on ka ohtlikud keskkonnale ja elusloodusele. Kemikaalid on ohtliku toimega loomadele allaneelamisel, naha ja silmadega kokkupuutel ning sissehingamisel võivad olla isegi surmavad. Mõningad kemikaalid mõjuvad ka reproduktiivsusele. Kemikaalid on ohtlikud ka vesikeskkonnale. Kemikaalide mõjusid on põhiliselt uuritud küülikute ja rottide peal. Keskkonnas võivad kemikaalid olla ohtlikud ning selle vältimiseks on kasutusele vaja võtta erinevaid meetodeid, et kemikaal üldse sinna ei jõuaks. Tuleks rajada kogumisbasseinid ja kanalisatsioonisüsteemid ning pinnata peale- ja mahalaadimisjaamad. Vältida mahavoolu või väljavoolu sattumist kraavidesse, kanalisatsiooni või veekogudesse. Kui midagi peaks juhtuma tuleks kohe teavitada asjassepuutuvaid ametiasutusi ning alustada puhastusmeetmeid. Autopesulaid uurides ning kohapeal käies oli näha, et kõik vastab ka seadustele ja normidele. Kõik vajalik oli neis ettevõtetes olemas ning ei tundunud et midagi oleks puudu. Ka töötajad kasutasid vastavalt nõuetele õigeid vahendeid enda ja keskkonna kaitseks.

Abstract [en]

Car washing and the maintenance of different engine and interior components is quite topical nowadays. This concerns all car owners. According to Statistics Estonia nearly every other person in Estonia owns a car and at the end of 2014 over 653 000 cars were registered in Estonia. This vast number is the reason for choosing the topic of this graduation thesis. Different car care products, containing various hazardous chemicals, are used in different types of car washing. From the foregoing originated the idea to examine what products are being used in car washes and how dangerous the chemicals they contain are for people and the environment. The purpose of the thesis was to get an overview of the products used in car services, and the chemicals contained in them, taking account of different service types and the procedures (engine washing, washing of internal- and external components). What kind of dangers may threaten the personnel and the environment by using these products? What are the statutory safety regulations concerning work in car washes? The task was to get an overview of the effects of chemicals according to the safety data sheets . The tasks and methodology of the thesis resulted from the foregoing. The thesis consists of several parts, which are all related with the information obtained from different car washes. For every company, a series of questions revealed how many and what kind of chemicals the company is using. The safety data sheets of the chemicals and the work processes in the companies were analysed, as well as what products and substances contained in them can turn out to be dangerous for the personnel and the environment. The safety equipment was examined, as well as what needs to be done during an emergency. The environmental impact of the products and chemicals was also examined. Gathering information was difficult because many companies did not wish to cooperate. Three companies were studied, two in Tallinn and one in Kohila. The information was gathered by visiting the companies or through e-mail. Manual car washes essentially perform five procedures – outer washing, inner washing, engine washing, polishing and waxing. Different products containing various chemicals are being used for these procedures. In total 11 different products were examined by their safety data sheets. The products contained dozens of dangerous chemicals. Different car washes use similar products. The most popular is car’s outer washing, which would account for 90% of the jobs. The second most popular one is interior washing; other procedures were not so popular. Among different products, tar removal products are the most popular ones, which could be ordered up to half a ton per year. But above all, water is most widely used in car washes. If all three types of washing are done to a car, it may take up to 260 litres of water. Most chemicals are dangerous for the environment as well as for the personnel. Employees in direct contact with the chemicals need to be extremely careful because the chemicals are harmful upon inhaling, if swallowed, in contact with skin or eyes. All products are dangerous, some of them more than others. Employees need to use different safety equipment depending on the procedure – glasses, respirator/mask, protecting gloves, clothes and shoes. Products and the contained chemicals are also dangerous for the environment and wildlife. Chemicals have a dangerous effect on animals upon swallowing, coming in contact with skin or eyes or inhaling may even be lethal. Some chemicals also affect reproducibility. Chemicals propose a threat to water environment as well. The effects of chemicals have been mainly studied on rabbits and rats. Chemicals may be dangerous for the environment; therefore, different methods must be applied to prevent them from reaching the environment. One should be cautious and build collection tanks and sewerage systems as well as cover the surfaces of ports of embarkation and debarkation. Spillage or outflow getting into trenches, sewers or water bodies should be avoided. If something should happen, relevant authorities should immediately be informed and corresponding cleaning procedures started. While examining and visiting the car washes it was seen that everything is according to the laws and standards. All essential items were present and nothing seemed to be lacking. The personnel were using the required safety gear to protect themselves and the environment.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Viiu Sillaste
Subjects: Transport > Automotive engineering > Autode hooldus, hooldusjaamad ja seadmed
Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Treatment of Hazardous Waste
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Sten Karhu
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2016 06:52
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2016 06:52
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2321

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