TTK Links: Home Page | TTK Moodle | ÕIS
TTK/UAS Repository For Digital Teaching and Learning Resources

Filtratsioonimooduli määramise katsestandardi EVS 901-20:2013 laboratoorsete katsete edasiarendus

Saarik, Sten-Kristjan (2016) Filtratsioonimooduli määramise katsestandardi EVS 901-20:2013 laboratoorsete katsete edasiarendus. [thesis] [en] Development of the national standard EVS 901-20:2013 for measuring permeability in laboratory tests.

[img] PDF - Published Version
Restricted to repository personnel only until 1 June 2017.

Download (3MB)
[img] Microsoft Word (retsensioon) - Supplemental Material
Restricted to repository personnel only until 1 June 2017.

Download (16kB)

Abstract

Ebapiisava dreenivusega pinnaste kasutamisest tingitud kahjusid on võimalik ära hoida kasutades dreenkihis kvaliteetseid ja nõuetele vastavaid piisava filtratsiooniga materjale. Maanteeameti kui ka teeehitusettevõtete huvides on, et dreenkihti paigaldatud materjali omadused oleksid määratud usaldusväärse ja reaalse olukorraga vastavuses oleva meetodiga, vältimaks ebakvaliteetse materjali kasutamisest tingitud teede eluea vähenemist ning sellega kaasnevat majanduslikku kahju kõikidele osapooltele. Uurimuse käigus selgus, et EVS 901 -20:2013 meetodi probleemidele on võimalik mõningate täienduste näol leida lahendust. Töö autor tegutses täienduste väljatöötamisel võimalikult suures kooskõlas kehtiva standardiga, et ei oleks tarvis ümber muuta juba sätestatud põhimõtteid. Läbiviidud katsete abil sai autor väga põhjaliku nägemuse probleemi olemist ning sellega kaasnevalt tekkis koostoos juhendajaga mitmeid ideid, mis oleksid kindlasti väärt edasiarendamist ja täiendavat uurimist ning katseid. Uuringu jooksul sai selgeks, et filtratsioonimooduli määramiseks ei piisa üksikutest materjali omaduste tundmisest, vaid usaldusväärsete katsetulemuste leidmiseks tuleb arvesse kindlasti vaadata materjali terviklikult. Selgus, et pealtnäha väga sarnastel materjalidel võib olla täiesti erinev filtratsioonimoodul. Seetõttu tuleks katsetamisel alati arvesse võtta materjali iseärasusi. Kokkuvõttes sai autori hinnangul kõige määravamaks aspektiks filtratsioonimooduli määramise laboratoorse katse juures tihendamismeetodi sobivus. Kui tihendamise käigus rikutakse materjali struktuuri ja tekitatakse mitte-homogeenne keskkond, siis ei ole sel viisil tihendatud proovil määratud filtratsioon enam tõepärane. Kui muuta tihendamismeetod löök-tihendamiselt vibratsiooniga tihendamisele eemaldades lisaks ka proovikeha põhjast umbes 20 mm paksuse kiht, on võimalik tagada reaalne filtratsioonimooduli väärtus ning seeläbi sobiksid praegusega võrreldes palju enamad Eesti karjääride kruusad ja liivad dreenkihi ehituseks. Lõputöö autor soovib tänada igasuguse abi eest kõiki uuringusse panustanud inimesi, kelleks olid:  Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli teede ja liikluse teadus-ja katselaboratooriumi töötajad: Hardo Pajus, Urmo Pappel ja Innar Metsala, kellega koos sooritas töö autor kõik uuringus läbiviidud katsed. 58  Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli teede ja liikluse teadus-ja katselaboratooriumi juhataja: Kristjan Lill, kes võimaldas kasutada labori katseseadmeid, õpetas töö autorile selgeks katsete teostamise ning panustas ka uute katse ideede väljatöötamisse.  Maanteeameti teedearenguosakonna projektijuht: Karli Kontson, kes aitas välja töötada uusi meetodeid nii, et need oleksid sobivuses Maanteeameti nõuetega.  Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkooli lektor ja käesoleva lõputöö juhendaja: Sven Sillamäe, kelle suunamisel kõik uued katsemeetodid välja töötati.

Abstract [en]

The author of the thesis decided to research and develop the subject because the method of measuring the pearmeability for drainage materials in Estonia has currently been under high attention and the need for developing a better method for it is essential. Since the year 2013, when the current National Standard EVS 901 -20:2013 was devised the National Road Administrations development compartment in cooperation with Tallinn University of Technology and Tallinn University of Applied Sciences have conducted many researches to find a better and optimal method for the previously described matter. In order to ensure the expected life-span of a road every layer in it needs to be made of high quality construction materials. The most important characteristic for drainage course next to bearing capacity is its ability to deposit and lead out water from the road structure. If water stays inside the road for too long it will start to weaken the whole structure thus it is very important that the material in drainage course would be able to fill its task of leading out the water fast enough. According to this it is very important that the laboratory methods for determing the materials properties are accurate and reliable. During the thesis the author describes how measuring the permeability of sands and gravels is done according to EVS 901 -20:2013 and what are the problems that occure during the process. The main focuses are on two problems of the method. The first one is evaluating the compaction method and its suitability for permeability tests and the second one is about the particle size of the gravels that is used for permeability testing. In order to solve the compaction issue that is currently causing the genesis of separate layers with different levels of density which has a negative effect on the permeability properties author decided to replace the current dynamic hammer compaction method with compacting by vibration and a static load with an additon of removing a small proportion (7,5 mm) of the test specimens bottom layer. Tests carried out during the research have proven that applying the method of compacting with vibration and removing 60 the bottom layer permeability of the materials was improved and the method itself is in better correlation with the situation in construction sites where compacting is usually done by vibrating plates and rollers. For the second problem of involving a bigger proportion of the material for large grained gravels in permeability testing the author designed a new and bigger test device that was able to include fraction 0/16 instead of the currently used 0/4. Also there has been a big misconception that including larger grain particles into permeability testing for gravels would increase the value of permeability. After carrying out a number of tests which included a variety of natural and artificial gravels, it has been revealed that by adding coarse grains to permeability testing the value of permeability was significantly decreased. The author of the thesis estimates that both of the new methods are appliable in the local road construction field but definitely need further research and more tests in order to standardize them for future usage. Finally the author wishes to thank everyone who contributed to this research with their time and effort:  The staff of Tallinn University of Technologies road construction laboratory: Hardo Pajus, Urmo Pappel and Innar Metsala, who helped with carrying out the laboratory tests.  The head of Tallinn University of Technologies road construction laboratory: Kristjan Lill, who enabled the usage of his laboratories equipment, taught the author how to carry out laboratory tests and helped developing new test methods.  National Road Administrations development compartments project manager: Karli Kontson, who helped developing new test methods so they would be appliable for current requirements.  Tallinn University of Applied Sciences lecturer and the supervisor of the thesis: Sven Sillamäe, who came up with most of the ideas for the development of the new methods.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Sven Sillamäe
Subjects: Construction > Road Construction > Road design > Road construction materials
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Road Construction
Depositing User: Sten - Kristjan Saarik
Date Deposited: 29 May 2016 14:33
Last Modified: 17 Jun 2016 06:19
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2249

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item