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Võõrliigid läänemeres ja nende mõju keskkonnale

Suits, Kristjan (2016) Võõrliigid läänemeres ja nende mõju keskkonnale. [thesis] [en] Alien Species in the Baltic Sea and their Impact on the Environment.

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Abstract

Tänapäeva kiiresti arenevas ühiskonnas pööratakse üha rohkem tähelepanu merekeskkonna tähtsusele ning selle kaitsemisele ja mõistetakse sellest tulenevaid otseseid mõjusid majandusele. Võõrliikide poolt merekeskkonnale tekitatav kahju ja sellest tulenev mõju majandusele on antud probleemi muutnud aktuaalseks ning on mõistetud, et see probleem vajab lahendamist. Laevandus on üks tähtsamaid veevõõrliikide transpordi mooduseid ning seetõttu on laevandusega seotud tegevused olnud viimaste aastate jooksul aina rangemalt reguleeritud. Bioinvasiooni globaalne olemus on probleem, mis teeb selle lahendamise lokaalselt võimatuks. Seetõttu on võõrliikide leviku piiramiseks vajalik riikidevaheline koostöö. Läänemerest on leitud 132 võõrliiki, kellest umbes pooled on sisse toodud viimase 50 aasta jooksul. Läänemerre on saabunud võõrliike maailma eri paikadest. Saabuvate võõrliikide mõju on paljuski teadmata, kuid drastilisemaid ökosüsteemi muutvaid näiteid võib leida ümarmudil Neogobius melanostomus, rändkarp D. polymorpha ning hulkharjasuss Marenzelleria spp. kujul. Võõrliikide probleemi ohjamiseks on erinevad seadused ning konventsioonid, mis sätestavad laevadele kohustusi ning piiranguid. Neist tähtsaimateks on Laevade ballastvee ja -setete kontroll ning käitlemise rahvusvahelise konventsioon. Euroopa Merestrateegia raamdirektiiv loob liikmesriikidele raamistiku, et saavutada merekeskkonna hea seisund ettemääratud ajaks, üks direktiivi alla kuuluvatest punktidest on bioloogilise mitmekesisuse säilitamine. Lõputöös uuriti Eesti suuremate sadamate suhtumist võõrliikide invasiooni probleemi ning meetmeid, mida nad probleemi ohjamiseks kasutavad. Küsitlusest selgus, et Eesti sadamad tegelevad probleemiga vaid Eesti seadusandluses ettenähtud mahus. Suurem osa sadamatest ei tee lisainvesteeringuid, et vähendada võõrliikide invasiooni tõenäosust kuni riik ei ole vastavaid nõudeid esitanud. Sadamad ei teosta ka ballastvee proovide võtmist. Volitatud asutused teevad sadamatele ebaregulaarseid kontrolle. Ainsaks küsitluses osalenud sadamaks, kes võimaldab ballastvee ära andmist, oli Tallinna Sadam, kuid nende väitel pole siiani ükski laev ballastvett veel ära andnud. 34 Kõigi küsitluses osalenud osapoolte vastustest selgus, et sadamad on valmis tegema investeeringuid võõrliikidega seotud probleemide lahendamiseks kui need on sätestatud kindlate eeskirjadega. Kuna ballastvee süsteemide installatsioon oleneb regiooni ning laeva spetsiifikast tuleks välja töötada ühtne süsteem laevadele enim sobiva tehnoloogilise lahenduse installeerimisele. Tähtis on ka ballastvee puhastussüsteemide kuluefektiivsemaks muutmine. Veel on oluline laevaomanikke motiveerida ballastvett ning setteid sadamasse ära andma. Ballastvee proovide võtmist tuleks teha karmimaks. Ballastvee proovide võtmise kord tuleks teha rangemaks ning sagedamaks, ka läbipaistvamaks kasutades sõltumatut kolmandat osapoolt. Seeläbi oleks võimalik kinnitada ballastvee vahetuse korrapärast täitmist. Kokkuvõtlikult peaks veevõõrliikidega võitlemiseks ballastvee vahetus olema senisest sadamale ning laevadele aja- ja kuluefektiivsem. Lisaks tuleks seadusandlus globaalselt ühtlustada.

Abstract [en]

The environmental policies and issues have been of topic for the last half of the century. But the issues regarding invasive aquatic have been in focus only for the past two decades. As shipping is the main vector for the transportation of invasive aquatic species the legislations and requirements for the marine industry are growing more strict. By the end of 2016 ships with GT 400 are required to install ballast water treatment systems in addition to ballast water management plans. The installment of the treatment systems would potentially decrease the amount of invasive species transported by global marine industry activities. The ports are also required to support the implementation of new technology by installing additional reception, disposal facilities. Ports have to establish a set of ballast water quality inspection procedures. The aim of this thesis is to establish the level of motivation of Estonian ports to deal with the issues regarding aquatic invasive species carried by marine transport. The methods or equipment the port has implemented to avoid the invasion of foreign aquatic species. Also the opportunities the ports provide for the ships to dispose of the ballast water and sediments. The ideas of the thesis are: 1. Give an overview on the topic of invasive species and the importance of it in the Baltic Sea. To clarify the socio-economical impacts of the aquatic invasive species by using various academic sources and written documentation. 2. Give an overview of the existing aquatic invasive species and their invasion vectors. To establish the amount of changes in the number of invasive aquatic species in the Baltic Sea through history. 3. The thesis gives an overview of the most important legislations and conventions regarding biodiversity of the Baltic Sea. 4. Research of the motivation of the ports to reduce the amount of invasive aquatic species. 36 Within the past half of the century the number of aquatic species has nearly doubled. Today the Baltic Sea is home for 132 invasive aquatic species. The vast majority of the invasive aquatic species transported into the Baltic Sea come from the Great Lakes or Ponto-Caspian region. The exact impact of invasive marine species is unknown, however some species as M. leidyi, D. polymorpha and C. pengoi have shown the potential to disrupt ecosystems and/or create a great amount of financial loss. In the Baltic Sea Neogobius melanostomus, D. Polymorpha, Marenzelleria spp have already shown the capability to alter the environment. The essence of the bioinvasions is global which makes the solving of the issue locally impossible. Therefore international co-operation is essential. There are many legislations, regulations and conventions which regulate the obligations of the marine transport and the ports. BWM, HELCOM and EU Marine strategy framework are the most important for managing the aquatic invasive species. In this thesis the biggest Estonian ports– Sillamäe, Pärnu, Tallinn, Kunda and BLRT were taken into the scope. The questionnaire was answered by the Port of Tallinn, Kunda Port and BLRT Group. The results of this questionnaire show that the ports are not motivated to independently invest into prevention of transportation of aquatic invasive species into the port aquatorium. The ports are ready to invest into the relief of the issue once it has been globally agreed and regulations have been enforced, at least in the Baltic Sea region. The ports are currently dealing with the issue according to the Estonian Governments regulations. The demand to dispose of the ballast water and sediments have been significantly low in Estonia. The only place that provides the service of ballast water and sediment removal from the vessels is Paljassaare port, which is incorporated in Tallinn Port. The lack of demand for the removal of ballast water and sediments and the deficiency of local and global regulations regarding the ports responsibility sets the main responsibility to fight against biopollution on the ship owners. The states also lack of a globally unified ship-specific and regional procedure for the installation and use of ballast water treatment system. Currently the main responsibility of dealing with the consequences of the invasive aquatic species lies only on the government. It is essential to create a system to divide the financial responsibilities between the ports, state of port and the ship owners globally to fight the transportation of invasive aquatic species and their impacts. Also it is necessary to find new cost-effective technological solutions for ballast water treatment. The flag states need to give support to motivate the disposal of the ballast water and sediments. The ballast water quality should be monitored regularly by a third party, without any notice to avoid falcification of records of ballast water management.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Henn Ojaveer
Co-advisor: Oliver Kalda
Subjects: Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Introduction to Ecology
Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Introduction to Environmental Protection
Transport > Sea transport
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Kristjan Suits
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2016 12:04
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2016 12:04
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2201

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