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Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidla saneerimisjärgne olukord seireandmete (2009-2015) põhjal

Ait, Marilin (2016) Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidla saneerimisjärgne olukord seireandmete (2009-2015) põhjal. [thesis] [en] Sillamäe Radioactive Tailings Pond Situation Based on Monitoring Data (2009-2015) After the Remediation Project.

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Abstract

Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidla oli aastakümneid üheks suurimaks reostusobjektiks Läänemere kaldal, mis pälvis tähelepanu nii Eestis kui mujal maailmas. See omakorda tingis selle, et hoidla saneerimisprojekti elluviimist ei pidanud esmatähtsaks üksnes Eesti riik, vaid rahaliselt tuge pakkusid ka teised välisriigid. Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidlas elluviidud saneerimistööde efektiivsuse hindamiseks ning jäätmehoidla ja selle mõjuala keskkonnaseisundi jälgimiseks on koostatud seireprogramm. Tänaseks on jäätmehoidlas viidud läbi seireprogrammi kaks osa, mis hõlmasid seiret saneerimisprojekti ajal ning pärast seda. Aastal 2014 alustati kolmanda etapiga ehk järelseire jätkuseirega. Antud lõputöö ülesandeks oli analüüsida Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidla seireandmeid, mis on koostatud aastatel 2009-2015. Põhjalikumalt keskendus autor jäätmehoidlal toimunud vajumite seirele; lõppkatte toimimise seirele lüsimeetrite abil; kaevude veetasemete seirele ning nõrgvee keemilise koostise seirele. Lisaks analüüsiti ka mereveeseire andmeid. Esimese etapi käigus viis autor ennast kurssi Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidla ajalooga ning seda iseloomustavate teguritega. Teises osas kirjeldati Sillamäe jäätmehoidla saneerimisprojekti ning selle seiret. Kolmanda osa eesmärk oli tutvustada töös kasutatud andmeid ning metoodikat. Neljandas osas viidi läbi mahukas seireandmete analüüs, kus keskenduti põhjalikumalt neljale seirele. Viimases etapis toodi välja seireandmete analüüsi põhjal tehtud järeldused ning soovitused. Seirearuandeid analüüsides selgus, et Sillamäe radioaktiivsete jäätmete hoidlas on andmete kogumine toimunud aastate vältel väga regulaarselt ning kogutud andmeid on väga palju. Seireandmete järgi on olulisel osal hoidla territooriumist vajumine lõppenud. Suurimad vajumid on toimunud hoidla servaaladel ning vajumite jaotus hoidlas on toimunud ühtlaselt, mis pole mõjutanud ärajuhtimissüsteeme ning lõppkatte funktsioneerimist. Analüüsidest saadud tulemused kinnitavad lõppkatte tõhusat toimimist ning saviekraani rajamiseks kasutatud materjali (kambriumi savi) sobivust. Põhjavee taseme analüüsidest selgus, et veetase paikneb jäätmehoidlas valdavalt jäätmetest sügavamal, kuid siiski on mõningates piirkondades veetase prognoositust kõrgemal. Nõrgvee koostis on aastate vältel olnud kaevudes väga erinev. Vaatamata sellele, et nõrgvees esinevate teatud komponentide sisaldus on väga suur, siis merevett need nõrgvee sisaldused ei mõjuta. Seda kinnitab ka Tartu Ülikooli Eesti Mereinstituudi poolt aastate vältel läbi viidud Sillamäe sadama merekeskkonna seire. Antud lõputöö andis autorile väga hea kogemuse suuremahulise ja arendava töö kirjutamises. Töö raames leiti vastused kõikidele esitatud küsimustele ning püstitatud eesmärgid täideti. Antud lõputöö näol on tegemist väga kõneka teemaga, mida oleks võimalik veel sügavamalt uurida. Kindlasti on soov ning motivatsioon antud teemat tulevikus veel pikemalt uurida ning analüüsida.

Abstract [en]

The Sillamäe uranium-processing industry was closed in 1990, but the radioactive tailings pond remained the largest polluting object on the coast of the Gulf of Finland, deserving the attention of Estonia and other neighbouring countries. The project of the liquidation and the ending of the pollution were funded by Estonia and several foreign countries. In respect to Estonian, the project started in the 1990s, was absolutely unique and was carried out in cooperation with the scientists and specialists of many countries. The topic has been reflected also in the media as the source of pollution is extremely dangerous on the shores of the Gulf of Finland. The need for the remediation of the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond proceeded from the fact that the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond had had a significant negative impact on the surrounding environment throughout the years. The main problem of the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond was constituted in the fact that the pond was not in conformity with the requirements of the international radiological, environmental and geo-technical safety standards. The choice of the theme of the final paper comes from the necessity to increase the awareness of the Estonian society about the sources of pollution around us; in this case the object is the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond. The pond has had a certain impact on the environmental conditions of Estonia for decades but its negative influence is being eradicated by today. It is important to change the people’s understanding of the situation describing Ida-Viru County as a polluted area still today as nothing has been done for its improvement. The choice of the topic was also determined by the fact that a large amount of the monitoring data is available and was not thoroughly analysed. The final paper intends to fill in this gap. The aim of the final paper is a detailed analysis of the selected monitoring data obtained from the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond and based on the received results make recommendations for the development of the new monitoring program, which will begin in 2018. In order to assess the efficiency of the remediation work carried out in the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond and to monitor the tailings pond and the area under its influence, by today a two-part monitoring program has been carried out in Sillamäe tailings pond comprising monitoring during the remediation project and after that. In the year 2014, the follow-up monitoring of the post-remediation monitoring of the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond, forming the second part of the monitoring program, was accomplished. The task of the final paper is to analyse the monitoring data of the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond compiled in during 2009-2015. The focus is on the monitoring of surface settlements in the tailings pond; the monitoring of the functional performance of the tailings pond final cover by means of lysometers; the chemical composition monitoring of the seepage water and the monitoring of groundwater level in wells. Also the marine monitoring data obtained from the Estonian Marine Institute of Tartu University is analysed. The analysis of the monitoring reports collected throughout years show that data collection in the Sillamäe radioactive tailings pond has been carried out regularly and the amount of the monitoring data is very big. During the further analysis of surface settlements, it came out that larger settlements have occurred in the north-western part of the tailings pond because that part was covered by water and the solids were weaker there than in the eastern and central part. The analysis of the monitoring of the functional performance of the tailings pond final cover also shows that the amount of water that has percolated through the sealing layer into the tailings pond body is several times smaller in comparison with the established goals (20 000 m3/year) by years. The analysis confirms the efficiency of the functional performance of the tailings pond final cover. The monitoring of the chemical composition of the seepage water shows that the content of some indicators in the seepage water is rather high. However, from the analysis of the marine monitoring it can be concluded that the compounds have had no impact on the chemical composition of the sea water at sampling points. The analysis of the ground water level data shows that in the tailings pond the current level of the ground water is higher than assumed but still lower than the tailings body. The author of the final paper makes recommendations for improving the future monitoring and some notes concerning the maintenance of the monitoring network and drainage system. The theme is very topical and should be dealt more thoroughly. Based on the intentions and motivation the topic could be studied and analysed more extensively in the future.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Pille Sedman
Co-advisor: Viiu Sillaste
Subjects: Technoecology > Environmental Protection > Hydrogeology and Estonian Geology
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Marilin Ait
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2016 12:13
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2016 12:13
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2199

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