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Põlevkivituha taaskasutamisest

Kislar, Raimond (2016) Põlevkivituha taaskasutamisest. [thesis] [en] Recycling of Oil Shale Ash.

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Abstract

Antud töös sai käsitletud erinevaid kasutusel olnud/olevaid põlevkivituha taaskasutusmeetodeid. Põlevkivituhal on palju häid omadusi, millest tingituna on võimalik tuhka vaadata kui ressurssi. Näiteks leiab põlevkivituhk oma sideainelistest omadustest tingituna laialdast kasutust erinevates ehitusvaldkondadest ning tänu kõrgele pH-le ja kaltsiumi sisaldusele leiab tuhk kasutust põllumajanduses. Põlevkivituhka tekib igal aastal miljoneid tonne, kuid nendest miljonitest tonnidest leiab taaskasutust ainult väga väike protsent. Praeguste taaskasutusmeetodite juures on selge, et kogu aasta jooksul tekkivat põlevkivituha kogust on pea võimatu ära kasutada. Tekkivad kogused on selleks lihtsalt liiga suured. Tekkivat tuha kogust silmas pidades on töös käsitletud taaskasutusmeetoditest kõige suurema potentsiaaliga kaeveõõnte täitmine. Hetkel teadaolevatest meetoditest oleks kaeveõõnte täitmisega võimalik ära kasutada kõige suurem kogus põlevkivituhka. Vaja on veel täiendavaid uuringuid, et kindlaks teha, millised võivad olla antud tegevuse mõjud keskkonnale, eelkõige põhjaveele. Nagu juba öeldud, siis on võimalik põlevkivituhka vaadata kui ressurssi, kuid ennekõike tuleb meeles pidada, et tegu on siiski ohtliku jäätmega, mis võib valesti käideldes olla kahjulik nii keskkonnale kui inimtervisele.

Abstract [en]

Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen. Kerogen gives oil shale its value as an energy resource. Oil shale has played an important role in Estonia’s energy industry for almost a hundred years. It has been used to produce electricity, heat, shale oil and shale gas. One of the biggest problems that results from using oil shale is the vast amount of waste that is generated. Oil shale’s mineral matter content is about half of its mass. In order to produce electricity from oil shale, oil shale is burnt at high temperatures. The part of oil shale that is kerogen is burnt away but the mineral matter of oil shale remains and becomes oil shale ash. Oil shale industry generates millions of tons of oil shale ash annually. Due to its high alkalinity oil shale ash is classified as hazardous waste. The targets of this graduation thesis are as follows:  to give a brief overview of the history of oil shale usage in Estonia;  to look at the composition of oil shale and its ash;  to compare different oil shale processing technologies;  to give an overview of different oil shale ash recycling technologies. The main emphasis of this thesis is on the recycling of oil shale ash. Different recycling technologies are compared:  using oil shale ash in construction mortars and materials;  using oil shale ash in agriculture;  using oil shale ash in road construction;  using oil shale ash to produce plastics;  using oil shale ash for backfilling old mines; 34  using oil shale ash as a potential binder of CO2. In conclusion, there is only one method that could be successfully used to recycle all the oil shale ash produced annually. This method is backfilling of old oil shale mines. But there is still lots of work to do before full-scale backfilling could start. The main problem is that it is not known how the materials used for backfilling would react with ground water in the course of time. At present no other good method exists to recycle big amounts of oil shale ash.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Viiu Sillaste
Subjects: Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Raimond Kislar
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2016 06:58
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2016 06:58
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2181

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