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Jäätmete liigiti kogumissüsteem Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkoolis

Kaunissaar, Maria (2016) Jäätmete liigiti kogumissüsteem Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkoolis. [thesis] [en] Waste sorting system in TTK University of Applied Sciences.

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Abstract

Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkool on rakenduskõrgkool, kus on viis erinevat teaduskonda, kokku 13 õppekavaga. 2015. aasta seisuga, kus õppis üle 2500 üliõpilase ning igapäevaselt töötas ca 195 töötajat. Igapäevaselt tekkivate jäätmete liigiti kogumine erinevates asutustes on tänapäeval aktuaalne teema, kuid on väheseid, kes on reaalselt valmis asutuse jäätmekogumissüsteemi muutma. Kuna Eesti riik suundub jäätmete liigiti kogumise kohustuslikuks muutmise poole vastavalt seadusele, siis on oluline erinevates asutuses üles ehitada jäätmete liigiti kogumissüsteemid. Ka Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkool kogus jäätmeid segaolmena. 2015. aasta sügisel otsustati rakendada jäätmete liigiti kogumissüsteem TTK-s õppivate üliõpilaste abiga. Enne süsteemi arendamist ja loomist oli vajalik koguda andmeid jäätmetevoogude ning nende koguste kohta. Selleks korraldati sügisel esimene jäätmete uuring. Tulemuste saamise meetoditeks olid jäätmete vaatlus, sorteerimine ja kaalumine ning saadud andmete analüüs. Esimese uuringu käigus saadi andmed, mida kasutati uue jäätmesüsteemi ülesehituseks. Peale sorteerimise kastide paigaldust, toimus kevadel teine jäätmete uuring, et välja selgitada uute kastide kasutamise efektiivsus. Esimese ja teise jäätme uuringute käigus selgus, et kõrgkoolis oli suurim arv prügikaste ning tekkis enim jäätmeid esimesel korrusel (mõlema uuringu puhul jäeti välja null korrusel asuv söökla, mis on omaette valdkond). Selle põhjuseks võib olla administratsiooni, kus toimub igapäevane töö, ning fuajee paiknemine sel korrusel. II-IV korrusel tekkis jäätmeid esimese uuringu ajal sarnases koguses. Erinevuseks oli teise uuringu ajal saadud andmed, mille põhjal oli näha suurt jäätmete mahuliste koguste ebavõrdsust. II korrusel asuvas sorteerimise kastides tekkis nimetatud kolme korruse peale kokku enim jäätmeid kuna sealt käis läbi suurel hulgal üliõpilasi igapäevaselt. Kõrgkooli null korrusel loobuti väga suurest osast prügikastidest. Peale esimest uuringut paigaldati sinna kaks sorteerimise kasti (e-õppekeskusesse ja raamatukokku) ning allesjäänud prügikastid võeti kasutusele jäätmete liigiti kogumiseks. Sööklas asendati väikesed prügikastid suurte jäätmeid eraldi koguda võimaldavate mahutitega. B ja C korpuses langes prügikastide arv rohkelt. Esimese ja teise uuringu võrdluse tulemusena selgus, et esimese uuringu ajal tekkis seal jäätmeid suures mahus rohkem kui teise uuringu jooksul. Selle põhjuseks võisid olla prügikastid, millest loobuti ning üliõpilaste arv, kes kahe uuringu ajal B ja C korpusest läbi käisid. Sealsed sorteerimise kastid täitsid oma ülesannet efektiivselt kuna andmeid analüüsides selgus, et enamus jäätmetest kogunes just kastidesse. Võttes aluseks esimese uuringu käigus saadud jäätmete kogused ning mahud, valiti välja sobiv lahendus sorteerimise kastide näol, mille disaini autoriteks olid Tallinna Tehnikakõrgkoolis õppivate keskkonnatehnoloogia ja-juhtimise neljanda kursuse üliõpilased. Sorteerimise kastidele lisati juurde abistavad märgistused ja jäätmete loetelu, mis jääde kuhu kuulub. Peale sorteerimise kastide paigaldust teavitati üliõpilasi ning töötajaid. Jäätmenädala raames korraldati erinevaid tegevusi, et suurendada koolipere keskkonnateadlikkust. Uue süsteemi kasutusele võtuga langes kogu kõrgkoolis olevate prügikastide arv 286-lt 154-le (v.a söökla ja tualetid ning k.a sorteerimise kastid). Igapäevaselt tekkinud jäätmete osakaal, mis kogunes viie uuritava päeva jooksul sorteerimise kastidesse, moodustas ligikaudu 80% kogu jäätmete mahust, mis kõrgkoolis teise uuringu ajal tekkis. Antud tulemus on väga positiivne kui arvestada, et uus jäätmekogumise süsteem on suhteliselt värskelt kasutusele võetud. Samas on uue süsteemi kasutusele võtu negatiivseks pooleks igakuiste jäätmeveo arvete suurenemine kuna suurte konteinerite arv suurenes. Kuna kõrgkooli kontoriuumides on säilinud suur arv prügikaste, siis on üheks võimaluseks nende vähendamiseks asetada personaalsete prügikastide asemel igasse kontoriruumi ühiskasutatavad liigit kogumist võimaldavad prügikastid.

Abstract [en]

Waste collection and organization in different institutions is very topical subject nowadays. Although planned in many, it is not put into practice. TTK University of Applied Sciences had planned changing waste collecting system for some period of time. In the autmn of 2015 TTK decided to build up new waste sorting system inside university with the help of environmentaltechnology and environmental managemnt fourth course students. Before building up the new waste sorting system, it was important to execute waste observation in TTK University of Applied Sciences for precise waste quantities which were produced in daily basis. For that the students, who were included to the project realization, were divided into seven different groups. Each group had one area of university for waste observation during five days. During the first observation period (22.09.2015 – 28.09.2015) it became clear which were the main waste streams and their exact quantities. Method used to collect essential waste data was divided into four different actions: • viewing the percentage of storage in each garbage can; • sorting waste (paper, packaging waste, biowaste and domestic rubbish); • weigh waste; • make notes of waste which was laid into wrong part of the waste sorting container (only during second observation period). Second waste observation (14.04.2016 – 18.03.2016) was necessary to make clear if the new waste sorting system was operating. Data which was gotten during both observations was used to analyze waste quantities. The highest amount of garbage cans and quantity of waste was produced on the first floor of the university during both periods. This might have been caused by administration offices and lobby which are located on mentioned floor. Meanwhile on the 2nd to 4th floor of the university, there was similar volume of the waste during first observation period (around 700 liters) but big difference of the waste volume on second period of waste observation. Most waste in spring was collected on the 2nd floor (approximately 900 liters in waste sorting containers and 200 liters in remained garbage cans), less on the 3rd floor (roughly 560 liters in waste sorting containers and 70 liters in garbage cans) and least waste collected, on those three floors, was on the 4th floor (approximately 400 liters in waste sorting containers and 70 liters in remained garbage cans). This might have been caused by the amount of students who were active at the university during both periods. At the basement floor of the university, there was placed two sorting containers ( in library and e-learning center) and the remaining garbage cans were taken in use as sorting bins. Also the cateen (where the most waste was collected during both waste observation periods) which is located on the basement floor went through huge change. Meaning it withdrew small garbage cans and is using big sorting bins to collect biowaste, municipal waste and packaging waste. The volume of waste collected in the university B and C department was greatly different during two periods. Based on the waste analyze, the collected waste volume was about two times bigger on the first period of waste observation than it was during the second ( from roughly 960 liters to 570 liters). This might have been also caused by the activity in that area during both periods. The waste produced in autmn was collected all into small garbage cans but in spring, after installing the waste sorting containers, the volume of waste that was collected in remained cans was approximately 14%. Therefore about 86% of the waste, produced on B and C departement, was collected into waste sorting containers. During waste collecting system change there were different ways to inform students and staff from the upcoming change. It started with the European Week for Waste Reduction during what, there were held different environmentally friendly events such as promoting recycling clothes, quiz with prizes and movie night. Mentioned week turned out to be successful due to the amount of people who participated in it. The last and most important step of informing students and staff was sending an notification through TTK University of Applied Sciences Study Information System. After the installation of the new waste sorting containers (which were designed by the environmentaltechnology and envorinmental management forth course students), the amount of garbage cans dropped from 286 to 154. This included different garbage cans that got new use as a waste sorting bins and 19 new waste sorting containers. Most of the remained garbage cans are placed at the university different offices. The amount of waste produced at the university during first observation period was approximately 7500 liters, which was collected as mixed municipal waste into small garbage cans. After introducing the new waste sorting system, the amount of waste which was collected during second observation period into remained grabage cans was roughly 900 liters. Meanwhile waste collected into the new sorting containers was approximately 4200 liters. Therefore around 80% of the all waste produced at the university during second observation five days was collected into the sorting containers. Also the waste laid into the wrong part of the sorting container (mostly packaging waste in municipal waste and other way around) during second observation period, was remarkably small. The only problem that occured, based on the waste analysis, was the amount of the remained garbage cans at the university offices. One of the solutions for that could be by replacing personal garbage cans with one set of united garbage bins ( paper, packaging waste, biowaste and municipal waste bin) in each office. Therefore the amount of the garbage bins would not depend on the amount of the people who work in offices. This would decrease the amount of remained garbage cans significantly.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Monica Vilms
Subjects: Technoecology
Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management
Technoecology > Technology and Waste Management > Types of Waste and Basics of Waste Treatment
Divisions: Institute of Circular Economy and Technology > Environmental Technology and Management
Depositing User: Maria Kaunissaar
Date Deposited: 08 Jun 2016 12:07
Last Modified: 08 Jun 2016 12:07
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2174

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