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Üksikelamu kandekonstruktsioonide tugevusarvutused põhiprojekti staadiumis

Kerdo, Luige (2016) Üksikelamu kandekonstruktsioonide tugevusarvutused põhiprojekti staadiumis. [thesis] [en] Strength Calculations of a Detached House’s Load Bearing Structures in the Principal Design Stage.

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Abstract

Lõputöö eesmärk sai täidetud konstruktiivsete lahenduste teostamisel põhiprojekti staadiumis. Hoone projekteeriti monoliitsel raudbetoonist taldmikul olevale lintvundamendile. Terrassid projekteeriti toruvaiadele, mis valatakse betooni seest täis. Kandekonstruktsiooniks on AEROC EcoTerm Plus 500 mm plokid, mis kaetakse väljapoolt õhekrohviga. Sisemised mittekandeseinad lahendati 100 mm väikeplokkidest. Vahelae raudbetoonplaat arvutati kõige suurema ava ehk 7,9 m järgi. Arvutustest selgus, et vajalik raudbetoonplaadi paksus on 220 mm. Ehitusprotsessi kiirendamiseks vaadati alternatiivina ka vahelae lahendusvõimalust õõnespaneelidega paksusega 220 mm. Püramiidkujuga viilkatus lahendati töö käigus põhikandefermiga, mille külge kinnitatakse teised fermid. Fermide ühendused teostatakse taridetailide abil, mis on peakandja küljes. 14,9 m pikkune ava lahendati 3 m kõrguse fermiga fermi tsentrist. Fermi sõlmede ühendamiseks piisas arvutustulemustes kahest välimisest 10 mm terasplaadist ja 16mm läbimõõduga poltidest/naaglitest. Sama valik langes ka fermi postide ja võrguvarraste dimensioneerimise puhul. Teise korruse rõdu projekteeriti kandma liimpuittalale tugevusklassiga GL28h mõõtudega 140 x 320 mm millest piisab koormuste vastuvõtmiseks. Katuse ja rõdupost sai samuti lahendatud liimpuitu kasutades. Arvutustest selgus, et tugevusklassiga GL28h on piisavaks postimõõtmeks 400 x 400 mm. Tellija soov oli avar esik läbi mõlema korruse, seega tuli monoliitvahelaele esikusse projekteerida kandepost. Materjaliks sai valitud metallpost, ning arvutustest selgus, et piisab postist mõõtutega 100 x 100 x 4. Lahendada jäi veel teise korruse akna konsoolne nurgasillus. Selleks sai projekteeritud raudbetoon sillus mõõtudega 200 x 400 mm. Töös sai käsitletud veel nõudeid betoonile, sarrusele ja raketistele. Nõudeid teraskonstruktsioonidele ja samuti puit- ning kivikonstruktsioonidele. Lisaks seletuskirjale ja arvutusele on joonestatud vaated, esimese ja teise korruse plaanid ning vundamendiplaan. Lisaks plaanid sillustele mõlemal korrusel, plaan katuse fermide jaoks ning peakandefermi kujujoonis. Jooniste hulgast leiab ka asendiplaani, lõike ja tüüpsõlmede joonised. Võib öelda kokkuvõtlikult, et õnnestus lahendada tellija soovile vastav hoone ilma, et oleks pidanud tegema muutusi hoone kabariitides ja ruumilahendustes.

Abstract [en]

The aim of this diploma thesis is to design a single family home based on given draft figures. This is done in the principal design stage. Necessary constructive solutions are done in operational building design stage. The building is topical, since it is planned to be built gradually during the year 2017. The project is based on the relevant legislation of the Republic of Estonia, local government’s provisions for building work, and the wishes of the client. Writing will be supplemented with relevant figures and formulas. The thesis will also include creating a general layout of the house. The first part of the thesis is a specification, where an overview of the location of the building is given, the overall parameters described, and building structures introduced. After that, snow load, wind load, and dead load of the building are calculated. In the thesis, the strength calculations of the structures are done as limit state design. Including the chapters with the calculations, the diploma thesis consists of nine chapters altogether. The designed house will have two storeys. On the ground floor, there will be an open living room with a kitchen and a dining room, also a sauna with an anteroom. A geothermal heat pump is planned into the anteroom, which means the anteroom will also function as a utility room. On the ground floor, there will also be an office, a bathroom, and a spacious hall through two floors. On the first floor, there will be three bedrooms and a bathroom. The third and largest of the bedrooms will have a separate bathroom with a sauna and a wardrobe. The majority of the living room and master bedroom wall structures will consist of floor-to-ceiling windows which also offer access to the patio and balcony. Roof solution will be a gable roof designed of trusses, the roof will be covered with roofing tiles. The walls will be finished with thin stucco. The thesis has the necessary calculations for reinforced concrete-, steel-, and wood structures. In the thesis, attention is also paid to fire safety, foundation, and other relevant aspects. In addition to draft figures, the terms of reference also gave the material selection with the preferred heating solution. Since the solution is architecturally difficult and majority of the load is planned to be distributed to external walls, the amount of calculations increased. Bearing external wall material will be Ecotherm 500 AEROC block which will support reinforced concrete floor slab. When taking the protrusive parts of the building, long spans, and the openness of the hall into consideration, a 220 mm thick reinforced concrete slab enables the necessary bearing capacity. To support the slab, a bearing column with lintels had to be designed into the hall. For this, steel was chosen as the material. In addition to the hall, calculations for a bearing column with lintels in the living room’s external wall, where windows are dominant structures, had to be made. To speed up the building process, using reinforced concrete slabs as alternatives are viewed in the project. Roof structure will be solved with roof trusses. Roof structure will have span opening 14 m. To this, a roof truss with bolt connection is designed, to which smaller trusses are attached as modules. For the balcony, wood materials will be used. With the 6 m span opening, laminated beam with strength class GL28h will be used. Since the detached house’s load bearing structures were designed according to the terms of reference, the aim of the diploma thesis was achieved.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Anufriev Anton
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Structural design > Reinforced concrete structures
Construction > Building Construction > Structural design
Construction > Building Construction > Structural design > Steel structures
Construction > Building Construction > Structural design > Masonry structures
Construction > Building Construction > Structural design > Wood structures
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Kerdo Luige
Date Deposited: 13 Jun 2016 09:59
Last Modified: 13 Jun 2016 09:59
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/2081

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