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Taikse Piibu loomakasvatus kompleksi geodeetiline teenindamine

Laukus, Rauno (2015) Taikse Piibu loomakasvatus kompleksi geodeetiline teenindamine. [thesis] [en] Geodetic servicing of the Taikse Piibu animal husbandry centre.

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Abstract

Uue laudakompleksi rajamise eesmärgiks oli soov viia tootmine vastavusse keskkonnanõuetele, parandada loomade heaolu, suurendada tootmismahte ja muuta efektiivsemaks loomakasvatust. Tehtud tööde käigus rajati kolm uut hoonet ja renoveeriti üks vana, milles hakati kasvatama noorloomi. Viimases neist geodeetilisi töid ei tehtud. Objektil esimesi töid, mis tehti oli teede väljamärkimine. Teede märgiti välja kolmes erinevas etapis, vastavastavalt projektijärgsele asukohale, kasutades selleks GPS seadet. GPS seadmega väljamärgitud punktid kanti õigest asukohast kakskümmend sentimeetrit eemale mõõdulindiga ja see koht märgiti ära puidust tokiga. Peale esimese etappi teed väljamärkimist, loodi objektil kasutades selleks elektrontahhümeetrit ja GPS seadet ehituslik koordinaatsüsteem. Ehitusliku koordinaatsüsteemi loomisel märgiti GPS seadmega välja kaks esimese lauda telje risti. Antud teljeristide järgi orienteeriti elektrontahhümeeter ja sellega kanti välja omakorda teised ehitusüsteemi punktid ehk siis kindlustati objektil ehituslik võrk Kõrguse toomiseks objektil kasutati sammuti GPS seadet, millega mõõdeti elektrialajaama ümber paigutatud betoonkivi peale, saades sellele kõrguse. Sealt kanti kõrgus üle puidust elektripostile löödud naela peale optilise nivelliiriga. Elektriposti pealt kanti kõrgus omakorda objektile paigaldatud reeperitele ja vastavalt vajadusele ka vundamendi taldmikele. Kui omasüsteem objektil loodud, võis hakata välja märkima esimese lauda telgesid, kasutades selleks elektrontahhümeetrit. Telje ristid tähistati looduses puidust tokkidega, mitte ei kantud märke-tarale nagu tavaliselt, kuna ehitajatel oli telgesid vaja ainult mõõdulinti ja nööri kasutades väljamärkida vundamendi kannude asukohad, kuhu hiljem nende tarvis augud kaevata. Kui augud olid ettevalmistatud vundamendi taldmike valamiseks tuli aukudesse märkida taldmike asukohad. Selleks kasutati elektrontahhümeetrit ja prismat pikka saua otsas. Aukudes tähistati kannu nurkade asukohad armatuurvarda osade või kui neid ei olnud võimalik masse lüüa, siis kasutati selleks värvi. Järgnevalt võis alustada poltide paika rihtimisega. Poltide paika rihtimiseks kasutati elektrontahhümeetrit ja miniprismat. Prisma asetati poldi tsentrile ning mõõdistati elektrontahhümeetriga poldi tsentri koordinaadid. Seejärel võrreldi neid poldi projekti järgsete koordinaatidega. Nende väärtuste vahe järgi liigutati polte. Välitöödeks prinditi poltide joonis, millel olid poldid nummerdatud ja koordinaatide leht, kus oli numbrile vastavalt poldi X ja Y koordinaat ehitussüsteemis. Poltide rihtimisel juhtus esimese lauda viie poldigruppiga eksimus, mille käigus tuli hiljem antud poldigrupid uuesti välja märkida. Märgitud kohtadesse puuriti augud kuhu paigaldati keermelatid betooni keemia abil Selle probleemi põhjustas antud päeval kiirustamine, mille käigus ei avastatud treegeri sobimatust instrumendiga. Teostusmõõdistamine teostati poltidele ja tehnovõrkudele. Poltide teostusmõõdistamiseks kasuti elektrontahhümeetrit ja miniprismat, ühel juhul mõõdeti kõrgused ka nivelliiriga. Teostusmõõdistusese käigus selgus, et teise lauda kahel kannud oli poldid projektsest asukohast erinevad kaks kuni kaks pool sentimeetrit. Selle vea parandamiseks puuriti kannvundamenti uued augus vastavalt projektijärgsele asukohale kuhu, paigaldati betooni keemia abil uued keermelatid. Autori viibimise ajal objektil, viidi tehnovõrkude teostusmõõdistamine täide GPS seadmega. Geodeetilistes töödes esines küll mõningasi probleeme, kuid kõik probleemid said lahendatud ja tänaseks on laudakompleks töös.

Abstract [en]

The topic of this final thesis is “Geodetic servicing of the Taikse Piibu animal husbandry centre”. The centre is an animal housing complex to be developed on the Vana-Piibu and Noor-Piibu land units in Taikse village in Türi rural municipality. One purpose of establishing the complex is to bring production into line with environmental requirements, improve animal well-being, increase production volumes and make animal husbandry more effective. The Noor-Piibu cadastral unit formerly had an animal housing complex but since the buildings had outlived their use, they were demolished except for one building, which was converted into a shed for young animals. Three new buildings were built on Vana-Piibu land unit in the course of construction. Two are a free-range shed and a shed for animals with special needs. The latter one houses the staff areas and a milking area. The first part of the work performed on the site was staking out the paths. The location of roads, determined by the constructional project, was staked out in three different stages, using a GPS device. The points determined by GPS device were entered 20 cm away from the right location by use of measuring tape and this location was marked with a wooden stake. After the first stage of laying out roads, a construction coordinate system was established on the site using an electronic tachymeter and GPS In this stage, two intersections of axes of the first shed were marked using GPS. The electronic tachymeter was oriented according to these intersections and the other points of the construction system were determined – in this way, a construction survey network was developed on the site. A GPS device was also used to supply the heights on the site. The GPS was used to measure a point on to the concrete paving placed around the electrical substation. The height was transferred from this point to a nail driven into a wood electrical pole using an optical line level. From the post, the elevation was in turn transferred to benchmarks installed on the site and as needed to the foundation footings. After the project coordinate system for the site was established, the axes of the first shed were staked out using an electronic tachymeter. The intersections of the axes were staked, marks were not transcribed on to fences as usual. The reason was that the builders needed the axes to mark out the locations of the foundation piers using only measuring tape and string. This is where they later dug holes for this purpose. Once the holes had been prepared for pouring the footings, the locations of the footings had to be marked in the holes. An electronic tachymeter and prism on a long rod were used for this. The locations of the pier corners in the holes were marked with parts of a reinforcing rod, or where they could not be driven into the ground, paint was used. The next stage was to align the bolts. An electronic tachymeter and mini-prism were used for this. The prism was positioned on the bolt centre and the coordinates of the centre of the bolt were surveyed by electronic tachymeter. Then they were compared to the bolt coordinates as shown in the plans. The bolts were moved pursuant to the discrepancy between these values. For the purpose of the field work, two documents were printed out in the office: a bolt sheet identifying each bolt by a number and a coordinate sheet listing the X and Y coordinate for each bolt number. In the bolt alignment phase, an error occurred in five bolt groups in the first shed. The bolt groups had to be staked out again later and new threaded rods were inserted into the concrete by drilling and chemical means. The problem was caused by rushing on the first day – during which the unsuitability of the base with the instrument was not detected. The as-built survey was executed for bolts and technical utility networks. An electronic tachymeter and mini-prism were used for the surveying, in one case a level was used to measure heights. In the course of the as-built survey, it emerged that in the case of two of the foundation piers in the second shed, the bolts were up to 2.5 cm off. To correct this error, new threaded rods were inserted Into the concrete by drilling and chemical means. At the time the author worked on the project, all as-built surveys for technical utility networks were done by GPS. In the process of the geodetic work, some problems did occur, but all of them were resolved and today the animal housing complex is in operation.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Katrin Uueküla
Subjects: Construction > Applied Geodesy
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Applied Geodesy
Depositing User: Rauno Laukus
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2015 09:57
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2015 09:57
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1433

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