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Torma valla teede seisukord, probleemide analüüs ja täiendava rahaliste võimaluste leidmine

Sander, Gened (2015) Torma valla teede seisukord, probleemide analüüs ja täiendava rahaliste võimaluste leidmine. [thesis] [en] The Condition of Roads in Torma Parish, Analysis of Problems and Finding Additional Funding..

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Abstract

Kohalike teede olemus ja korrashoid on maaelu arenguks väga tähtsad ning on väga olulised ka inimeste igapäevaelus. Vallateede seisukord võrreldes riigiteedega on halvem, kuna kohalikel omavalitsustel puudub selline võimekus ja rahastus nagu riigil. Puudu on ka teede eriala spetsialistidest ja mehhanismidest millega hoolet teostada. See töö annab ülevaate Torma valla teede seisukorrast ning mõningatest probleemidest, mis neil teedel esinevad. Samuti on välja toodud ideid, kuidas leida lisarahastust. Parandamaks olukorda teedel, tuleks alustada põhiprobleemide likvideerimist. Kohdades, kus esineb valle, tuleks need likvideerida, et saaks tagada vee ärajuhtimise teedelt. Samuti tuleks puhastada kraavid võsast ja muust sodist, mis takistavad vee äravoolamist. Puhastada või vahetada tuleks truubid, mis ei täida enam oma ülesannet - on niivõrd amortiseerunud või lihtsalt kokku kukkunud. Kohtadesse, kus tekib seisvat pinnasevett, või on pidevalt liigniisked alad, tuleks rajada kraave või lisa truupe vee ärajuhtimiseks, et takistada teede ära uhtumist. Kulumiskihti küll täiendatakse pidevalt, kuid seal juures peab siiski jälgima seda, et peale greideriga lükkamist ei jääks kulumiskiht niiöelda „treppi“. See hakkab lõhkuma sõidukeid ja lõppkokkuvõttes hakkab segama mingil määral ka vee äravoolu. Mustkatte üle pindamist, ehk kulumiskihi uuendamist, on ette nähtud vaid paaril lõigul, kuigi vajadus selle järele oleks suurem. Torma vallas on suur hulk põllumajandusmasinaid, mis asuvad üldjoontes samas piirkonnas - Sadala, Torma ja Vaiatu asustused asuvad üksteisele väga ligistikku, igas asustuses asub põllumajandusettevõte. Sadala põllumajandusettevõte on tunnistatud Eesti üheks suurimaks. Liiklussagedust Torma valla teedel mõõdetud ei ole. Reaalsete näitude saamiseks võiks seda siiski teha, et teada saada, millised on tegelikud koormused teedele. Sellest tulenevalt oleks võimalik teada saada, millistele lõikudele tuleks enim tähelepanu pöörata. See tagaks nende seisundi hea taseme ja tee läbitavuse inimestele, kes seda pidevalt kasutavad. Eelarve Torma valla teedele on olnud suhteliselt stabiilne. Tõsi asi on see, et teede paremaks korrashoiuks oleks alati vaja lisaraha. Kindlasti tuleb ette olukordi, kus mõningaid toiminguid ei saa teostada väikese eelarve tõttu. Leidsin ja tõin antud töös välja mõningad kohad, kus oleks võimalik lisarahastust saada ja ma usun, et neid kohti on isegi rohkem – paraku ei olda teadlikud kõikidest võimalustest, samuti vajavad teatud valdkonnad väga spetsiifilist lähenemist.

Abstract [en]

In rural areas the existence of roads is highly important as very often there is no alternative way to travel but by a private car. The shops and other services are located far away in larger settlements or towns. Local roads are usually in bad conditions, because the local government lacks such capability as Road Administration has. The entrepreneurs are also not very keen on improving the life in countryside due to poor road network, but the absence of companies causes people’s migration to towns to look for better living conditions. The condition of roads in Torma parish is relatively good on roads with higher traffic flow density, but there are still lots of potholes or the road surface is jolty. There are seasonal changes in the condition of roads, and as there is a lot of forest land around, the roads are used by heavy vehicles, the traffic of which is regulated by the local government. During the season of bad roads there are weight limitations set for most of roads, and only the vehicles less than 8 tons of registered mass are allowed. The only exception is the garbage trucks, which can use the roads with special permit. Torma parish has got its road register since 2001, made by the engineering bureau Maa ja Vesi AS. Same year the first road management plan was developed, and it is renewed every 4 years. The existing plan is valid till the end of 2015. The present paper gives an overview of the roads of Torma parish, offering several solutions to preserve and improve the condition of roads. To study the conditions and have a better perception of the situation I was in contact with Torma local government, and they allowed me to use their data and documents. To obtain the information about the actual state of the roads I drove around all the roads myself. Apart from the information on the Internet, I also appealed for information to the Jõgeva Road Administration department, willingly providing me the answers and advice. Ave Kallo’s graduate thesis “"Saarde valla kohalike teede probleemide kaardistamine ja teehoiukava aastateks 2014-2017" (Defining problems and road management plan of local roads of Saarde parish for years 2014-2014) was taken as a model for this work. The nature and maintenance of local roads is highly important for the development of rural life, and therefore plays great role in people’s everyday life. However, the local roads are in rather bad condition compared to the state roads, as the local governments do not have such capability and funding as the state does. There is also lack of road engineering specialists and maintaining machinery. The present paper give an overview of the condition of roads in Torma parish and some issues concerning these roads as well as finding extra funding for these roads. To improve the condition of the roads it must started with eliminating the main problems. The ridges on the edges of the roads must be removed to enable water drainage off the roads, and the roadside ditches must be cleaned of brushwood growing there and other trash that prevents water streaming freely. The culverts must be cleaned or changed as so many of them do not function as they should be due to depreciation or collapse. In places with frequent surface water or areas with constant excessive moisture the ditches or extra culverts need to be built for the drainage to prevent the erosion of the roads. The wearing courses are constantly supplemented, but it must be monitored that in result of using the road grader the road would not end up being jolty, because that would damage vehicles and finally it would hinder the drainage off the roads. The surface dressing of the asphalt roads or the renovating of the wearing courses is intended to be performed only on few sections, although the necessity for it is much larger. In Torma parish there is a lot of agricultural machinery located in rather close area, as Sadala, Torma and Vaiatu settlements are situated nearby each other and in each settlement there is an operating agricultural company, the company in Sadala being acknowledged as one of the biggest agricultural companies in Estonia. The density of the traffic flow has actually never been measured, but it could be done to get the real indications of the traffic flow density, to find out, which sections of roads need more attention to ensure the essential conditions and passability of the roads for the people using those roads on daily basis. The budget for roads in Torma parish has been quite stable and remaining the same amount with minor changes, but not too severe. As a matter of fact, some extra funding is always needed for better maintenance of roads, as several necessary procedures cannot be performed due to lack of budgetary finances. Some options for extra funding are presented in this paper, and even more possibilities for finding extra funding are believed to be available, not often so obvious though, and some domains in road maintenance actually need much more specific approaches.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Heldur Paas
Subjects: Construction > Road Construction > Road building > Road maintenance
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Road Construction
Depositing User: Gened Sander
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2015 12:48
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2015 12:48
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1370

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