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Rakenduskava kasutamine projekteerimise juhtimiseks

Orumets, Karl (2015) Rakenduskava kasutamine projekteerimise juhtimiseks. [thesis] [en] Using an Operational Programme to Manage Changes During Modelling.

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Abstract

Käesoleva lõputöö, „Rakenduskava kasutamine projekteerimise juhtimiseks”, eesmärgiks oli selgitada rakenduskava vajalikkust projekteerimise täpsustuste juhtimisel ning kirjeldada rakenduskava olulisemaid punkte. Lõputöö koostamisel tugineti eelkõige veel avaldamata materjalile, milleks oli „Projekti rakenduskava“ ning lisaks kasutati veel erinevaid allikaid (nt. mitmeid juhendeid, avalikke internetiallikaid ja isiklikku kogemust). Lähtudes hetkel avaldamata materjalist, „Projekti rakenduskava“, jõuti selgusele, et rakenduskava järgimine projekteerimise täpsustuste juhtimisel, on vajalik, et töö toimuks organiseeritult, vastavalt koostatud plaanile. Lõputöö esimeses pooles oli selgitatud projekti rakenduskava olemust ja struktuuri ning toodud välja erinevate ehitusinfo modelleerimisega seotud ametid. Selgus, et järgides projekti rakenduskava on võimalik hoida kokku projekteerimiseks kuluvat aega, vigade hulga vähenemise arvelt. Samuti kajastati erinevaid maailmapraktikaid, kus selgus, et ühte projekti on mõistlik kaasata mitu spetsialisti, näiteks BIM juht ja BIM koordinaator, kes vastutavad mudelprojekteerimise valdkonnas erinevate osade eest. Lõputöö teises osas selgitati mudelprojekteerimise projektides kasutatavaid detailsusastmeid, mis kindlustavad tähtaegadest kinnipidamise. Erinevate detailsusastmete kasutamisega on võimalik ennetada mittevajaliku informatsiooni lisamist mudelisse. Eestis puudub aga sellekohane juhenddokument, mis käsitleks modelleerimise andmesisu, mida oleks vaja mingiks projekti staadiumiks. Seevastu on maailmas olemas sellekohased praktikad, mida kasutatakse valdkondadevahelise koostöö tõhustamiseks. Lisaks analüüsiti olukorda Eesti Rahva Muuseumi uue peahoone näitel, kus täpsustusi oli juhitud rakenduskava järgimata. Kirjeldatud olukord tõi probleemi selgemalt esile ning jõuti järeldusele, et praegune olukord on ebaefektiivne. Projekti juhib projekteerimise projektijuht, kes koordineerib tervet projekti käekäiku, vastutades projekti terviklikkuse ja projektiosade ühilduvuse eest. Projekteerimisega, ehk siis oma vastutusvaldkonna modelleerimisega, tegeleb teine pool. Tööst tuli välja probleem, et ei kasutata spetsialisti, kes teostaks kontrolli mudelprojekteerimise projekti kvaliteedile, sest antud osapooled ei suuda ajalise piirangu tõttu seda teha. Töös selgus ka, et 46 ainuüksi projekteerimise projektijuhi ametist ei piisa mudelprojekteerimise projektiga tegelemiseks, sest puuduvad üksikasjalikud teadmised ja oskused mudelprojekteerimise valdkonnast. Vajalik oleks tegutsemine, kus lisaks projekteerimise projektijuhile oleks projekti kaasatud ka inimene, kellel oleksid olemas spetsiifilised teadmised mudelprojekteerimise tehnilistest osadest ja nende järgmisest. Antud lõputöös selgus, et tänapäeval, pidevalt arenevas maailmas, on vajalik muuta projektide elluviimine efektiivsemaks ning panna samal ajal ka projektis osalejad sujuvamalt töötama. Selline tegutsemine tagab selle, et olemasolevat ressurssi kasutatakse otstarbekamalt, mille käigus muudetakse ka kogu tööprotsess tõhusamaks.

Abstract [en]

The purpose of this thesis, entitled ‘Using an operational programme to manage changes during modelling’, is to explain the need for an operational programme and to highlight the main points of the programme. The thesis is based on public web sources, as well as a range of guidelines and personal experience in managing changes on projects using building information modelling. Various fields of life have undergone major changes in recent times. One of the biggest sectors in which continuous development and progress is taking place through the use of different types of technology is construction. Teamwork has become a topical issue, as has as increasing its efficiency. In order to implement a project without setbacks, it is advisable to use an operational programme. Such a programme is necessary because it covers the themes that are needed for the implementation of information modelling. By following an operational programme, all parties to a project understand the project in the same way, which in turn makes teamwork more seamless. Following an operational programme helps save time on modelling because it ensures fewer mistakes, and therefore fewer changes need to be made to adjust design errors. Since construction projects all over the world have become more complex, several specialists responsible for different fields (of building information modelling) are needed on one project. The efficiency of this is also proved by global practice. In order to ensure the availability of the information necessary for a given stage of a project, various levels and scopes of detail are used in building information modelling. Since modelling is related to meeting deadlines, it is important to save time in order to avoid situations where a model is too complex i.e. situations where more information is added to a model than is necessary. Therefore, the volume of modelling needed for a particular stage of a project has to be clear. 48 The thesis analyses various situations in which changes are managed without a clear plan and describes specific examples and situations that can arise when an operational programme is not followed. In order to solve problems, guidelines for effective action are given. The first part of the thesis explains the nature and structure of an operational programme and highlights various professions connected to the building of information modelling. Here it emerges that it is possible to save some of the time spent modelling by following an operational programme, which reduces the number of mistakes made. Global practice is also described, wherein it emerges that it makes sense to involve several specialists in the same project – for example, a BIM manager and BIM co-ordinator who are responsible for different parts of building information modelling. The second part of the thesis explains the levels of detail used in building information modelling, which help in meeting deadlines. Models that are too complex can be avoided by implementing different levels of detail, which in turn helps to prevent unnecessary information being added to a model. In addition, a situation where an operational programme was not followed is examined. The situation described makes the problem clearer, with the conclusion being that compared to the rest of the world the current situation in Estonia is ineffective. The project is led by a project manager who co-ordinates the entire project and is responsible for its integrity and for the compatibility of its parts. Modelling their own field of responsibility is done by the other side. The thesis notes that specialists who check the quality of projects using a building information model are not being used: parties to projects cannot do so due to time restrictions. It becomes evident from the thesis that the position of project manager alone is insufficient when dealing with projects using building information modelling, since they lack detailed knowledge and skills in the subject. What is needed in addition to a project manager is the inclusion of a person with specific knowledge of the technical parts of building information modelling and how to follow them. The thesis makes it clear that in today’s constantly developing world it is necessary to make the implementation of projects more effective and to ensure that the parties to a project work together more seamlessly. This guarantees the purposeful use of existing resources, which makes the work process as a whole more efficient.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Aivars Alt
Subjects: Construction > Building Construction > Building construction and design > Modelling of construction information (BIM)
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Building Construction
Depositing User: Karl Orumets
Date Deposited: 10 Jun 2015 10:43
Last Modified: 10 Jun 2015 10:43
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1318

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