TTK Links: Home Page | TTK Moodle | ÕIS
TTK/UAS Repository For Digital Teaching and Learning Resources

Raudteede pasportiseerimine VKG näitel

Arismaa, Anne Riin (2015) Raudteede pasportiseerimine VKG näitel. [thesis] [en] Certification of railroads based on the example of VKG.

[img]
Preview
PDF - Published Version
Download (3MB) | Preview
[img] Archive (ZIP) (retsensioon) - Supplemental Material
Download (29kB)
[img] PDF (lihtlitsents) - Supplemental Material
Download (75kB)

Abstract

Raudteid mõõdistatakse erinevatel eesmärkidel. Käesolevas lõputöös on antud lühike ülevaade, millistel põhjustel ja milliste instrumentidega toimub raudteede mõõdistamine. Täpsemalt on kirjeldatud tahhümeetrilist mõõdistamisviisi raudteede pasportiseerimismõõdistustel. Antud töö koostamisel on aluseks võetud VKG Transport AS-i poolt tellitud Viru Keemia Grupp AS-ile kuuluvate Kohtla-Järve linnas paiknevate raudteede mõõdistamine ning selle põhjal vajalike jooniste ja dokumentide vormistamine. Lahti on kirjutatud erinevad tööde etapid, näiteks ettevalmistus mõõdistustöödeks, mõõdistuspõhise tihendamine vajalikul määral, reaalne mõõdistamisprotsess ning erinevad sisetööd. Töö praktilise poole kirjelduse vahele on põimitud seadustest ja määrustest tulenevad nõuded mõõdistamisele, seejuures on käsitletud Raudtee tehnokasutuseeskirja ning Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministri määruse „Ehitusgeodeetiliste uurimistööde tegemise kord“ nõudeid. Töö esimeses kahes peatükis on antud ülevaade mõõdistusobjektist, tellija korraldatud hankest, töö lähteülesandest ja kasutatud geodeetiliste instrumentide spetsifikatsioonidest. Kolmandas peatükis on käsitletud objektil olemasolevat mõõdistamispõhist ning selle tihendamise meetodeid. Mõõdistamisel kasutati maksimaalselt Kohtla-Järve linna polügonomeetriapunkte, kuid objekti paiknemine ja teised objekti eripärad tingisid vajaduse täiendavate kindelpunktide loomise järele. Mõõdistuspõhist tihendati objektil mitmes jaos ning vastavalt vajadusele, kasutades selleks traditsioonilist tahhümeetriat polügonomeetriakäigu näol, aga ka satelliitgeodeesia meetodeid, mida osaliselt kombineeriti nivelleerimisega. Töösse on lisatud lisaks meetodite kirjeldustele illustreerivad skeemid ja tulemuste tabelid ning hinnang tulemuste osas. Tööde ettevalmistuse all on eraldi kirjeldatud tellija poolt läbiviidud tööohutuse alast instruktaaži. Mõõdistamise käiku selgitavas peatükis on antud ülevaade, mida ja kuidas objektil mõõdeti, ning räägitud elektrontahhümeetri orienteerimiseks kasutatud meetoditest: nurgalis-joonelise lõike meetodil ja kindelpunkti kohale orienteerimisest. Välja on toodud, milliste probleemidega (juhendmaterjalide vähesus, ilmastikulised ning raudteeliiklusest tingitud probleemid) mõõdistajad tööde käigus kokku puutusid. Kameraaltööde peatükki on koondatud info maa-ala plaani joonestamisest, kõvera elementide arvutamisest, pikiprofiilide koostamisest koos sellele eelnenud tegevustega ning teede, pöörangute, signaalide, hoonete ja rajatiste andmike koostamisest.

Abstract [en]

The current thesis is titled as “Certification of railroads based on the example of VKG“. There are a number of possible reasons for railroad surveying, ranging from simple topographic surveys of areas including railroads all the way to detailed rail track specific surveys. For instance, one might order a railroad survey in order to examine the condition of existing railroad tracks, to certify tracks or rail facilities, to design new railroad associated equipment and facilities or additional paths to an existing railway network, but also to design and construct buildings or other objects in the close vicinity of a railroad, etc. Each of the survey types has its nuances and differences. Despite the fact that general principles of measuring railroads have remained relatively unchanged over time, there has been a remarkable development of the instruments used for surveying. Before the introduction of total stations railroads (as all other objects) were measured in two stages – positional data was collected using a theodolite and height data was obtained via levelling. These two stages can be combined when working with a total station. By now even more complex instruments have been developed for measuring track geometry, which provide extremely high precision results and can be combined with laser scanning. However, classic tachymetric surveying is still the most common means of geodetic measurements and therefore total stations are involved in a constant process of development. The main purpose of this thesis is to give a general overview of tachymetric railroad surveying, as well as a specific description of the different stages of geodetic works carried out while certifying VKG’s railroads located in Kohtla-Järve, Ida-Viru County. The writing provides information about the preparation of works, establishing a network of geodetic base points, also about the process of surveying and the indoor works. Furthermore, an overview of requirements applicable to railroad surveying is provided. The thesis begins with a brief introduction of the work site and the procurement for finding a suitable contractor, followed by the initial assignment issued by the client. Additionally, a listing of geodetic instruments used on site is given, accompanied by the technical specifications of each instrument. The surveying on site was planned out to be, as much as possible, based on the network of polygonometric points of Kohtla-Järve. However, the placement and other circumstances of the work site caused the need to densify the existing network of geodetic points which are used to set up the total station. The densifying took place in various places when necessary; traditional polygonometry and GNSS methods were used, the latter being combined with digital levelling. The thesis explains the different methods and provides illustrative figures and tables of results. The current thesis contains in full extent an earlier project report published by the author on establishing a network of geodetic base points to be used on the VKG’s closed territory. This report was initially written to be a part of the thesis; in the current writing additional referencing to the report has not been done. The paragraph about railroad surveying covers the general aspect of the topic, but also explains what exactly, where and how was measured, which methods were used to set up the total station (resection based on two geodetic points with known coordinates, and setting the instrument up over a known point), and what kind of problems occurred while surveying. In addition, the mentioned paragraph provides a summary of the most important points of VKG’s safety regulations for working on or close to railroads. The last part of the thesis speaks about indoor works, more specifically about drawing up a topographic plan, calculating the elements of curves, composing longitudinal profiles of railroad tracks and preparing specification tables for railroad paths, rail switches, signals, buildings and facilities. The mentioned works were carried out using the AutoCAD software.

Item Type: thesis
Advisor: Katrin Uueküla
Subjects: Construction > Applied Geodesy > Geodesy > Topographic survey
Divisions: Institute of Construction > Applied Geodesy
Depositing User: Anne Riin Arismaa
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2015 09:45
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2015 09:45
URI: http://eprints.tktk.ee/id/eprint/1217

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item